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Lecture 4

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Lecture 4 audio 37 definition, theories (what was proposed, what are the evidence for and what are the problems about it?), outcome and evidence; experiement, matching SS4004 Key Themes 1. Structure vs. Function 2. Serial vs. Parallel Processing 3. Modular vs. Domain general Processing 4. Connection between memory and attention  hard to draw a line between where attention ends and where memory begins Feature Integration Theory  visual search lab: attention comes in only in some searches  Single feature does not require attention and “pops out” automatically – this is the preattentive stage --> feature search ends at preattentive stage  analyze all the features that are present --> all independently --> blue, green, circle, square --> no attention to which green ones are circle and etc. --> find out which ones are green automatically --> fast and parallel  one feature = no attention  visual system is analyzing the bits --> not focusing  Binding features requires attention – this is the focused attention stage --> combines all the independent features together  role of attention in visual search is to bind features at one location  conjunctive search --> binds shape and color together --> need to recruit attention --> attention can only work at one place at a time--> green circle --> serial --> more distractors = slower  never becomes automatic --> with practice, might become faster, but attention is always needed to go from location to location  What do we want to know about memory?  Memory researchers are concerned with the type of things our memory can hold  how is it organized?  what is the structure of the memory  how is memory coded --> what form we use to hold memory  Memory researchers are concerned with the limiting factors of memory  what things limit memory  capacity (how much) and duration (how long)  Memory researchers are concerned with the processes that allow information to enter and exit memory  how do we put things in memory, hold in memory and extract things out again  Evidence for the distinction between explicit and implicit memory systems comes from people suffering from amnesia  declarative: we can talk about it -- we have the knowledge of having it --> conscious of  non-declarative: don’t know that we have the knowledge; the memory you have but can’t talk about it --> not conscious  Amnesia  Retrograde amnesia:  Memory loss for events prior to brain trauma  lose memory before that  most remote memory stays in tact (least likely to lose) --> old memory remembered best  gradient structure  closer to the present-> memory comes back: oldest first --> closer and  Anterograde amnesia:  Memory loss for events after trauma  loss the ability to form new memories  no gradient structure  doesn’t improve with time  H.M.  Seizures started at 10 years old  By 27, they were so severe could no longer work – they became intractable --> couldn’t be treated --> multiple seizures a day --> very serious  resting brain has irregular wave pattern --> seizures --> huge section of brain fire in synchrony --> big spikes in EEG --> all firing at once and take over brain --> all seizure start in one part of the brain --> in this case, medial temporal lobe  Bilateral removal of medial temporal lobe in 1953 --> successfully treated seizures  Intelligence, language, personality, emotional regulation and memory for past events relatively intact  Complete loss of ability to form new memories  i.e. loss of memory consolidation --> unable to form new memory --> anterograde amnesia --> quite severe --> unable to learn new things --> don’t remember his parents passed away or that he grows old  What could H.M. remember?  H.M. had lost all ability to form new explicit memories but demonstrated normal implicit learning  still had non-declarative memory  Priming:  Word-completion tasks ATTENTIO_T_ _N_ _ _N  Incomplete pictures --> recognize the image at an earlier (more incomplete) picture --> but doesn’t remember doing the task  unconscious memory --> not aware of knowing it --> lacking conscious awareness of the memory  Procedural tasks:  Memory for action --> remember how to do things  Mirror tracing --> trace around a shape without goes over the border in a mirror --> able to learn the task with practice  Tower of Hanoi --> move a stack of rings from left to right with the rule that a bigger ring can never be on top of smaller ring Memory and The Brain  Hippocampus inside the medial temporal lobe is important for memory consolidation (LTM) and memory for places  forming new memory  Parietal cortex appears to be more important to retain information for shorter periods (STM)   Memories may be stored in brain areas responsible for specific functions --> all over the cortex --> not in medial temporal lobe --> e.g. visual memory in occipital lobe   nonassociative memory: habituation, non-habituation and sensitization  episodic: describe that something happened --> time and place and what took place --> event --> e.g. learned this fact in a class with someone at some time --> mental time travel  semantic: know as a fact --> no memory of where and when is learned --> fact --> e.g. learned this fact --> don’t have episodic without semantic --> but can have semantic memory without episodic memory Types of Memory Tasks  Different types of tasks are used to measure different types of memory   recall: ask someone to report --> e.g. short answer  serial: remember items in order --> e.g. 1,2,3,4,  free: order doesn’t matter --> e.g. 2,4,3,1  cued: gives someone a hint --> don’t give the exact word, just a cue  recognition: gives someone options --> e.g. multiple choice  incidental task: memory task that is not expecting --> surprise!! memory test~~ --> how much is remembered when not trying --> e.g. rhyming test, but later memory test Declarative Memory  Atkinson-Shiffrin (1968) multi-store (modal) model  Structural (not really about process) , Serial (always in order, can’t go for more different things and do different things)are independent from each other, hold  three memory stores (modes) --> sensory, short-term and long term  control process: attention, rehearsal, transfer / retrieval  Sensory Memory  A limited capacity store that holds basic sensory information for a very limited amount of time --> structure  We have a different store for each of our senses --> separate sensory stores for each sensory info --> structure  for auditory info)ensory memory for visual info) and echoic (sensory memory  Attention helps pass items in sensory store on to short-term memory --> process Sperling’s Sensory Store Investigation  capacity: about 4 items  How much can we encode during a single, brief instance? B F Q Z D Y P R L K G S  When asked to remember as many letters as they can (whole report), people can only remember 3-4 items  whole report --> show whole display and report whole display  but maybe because duration is so short that people forget the items before they can report them all  cued: play a high note cue for top row; play a low note cue for the bottom row  How much can we encode during a single, brief instance?  When cued to report one row only (partial report), people could remember approximately 3 items in that row (82%)  letters are in which rowletter, need to report all rows --> need to know which  as a result, visual memory can hold 8 to 9 items (82% of whole or 12 items)   performance dropped at the initial --> so we can only hold for 150 ms --> duration of iconic memory is 150 ms  initially: 82% --> 9 items --> sensory memory  later: 4 items --> short-term memory  whole report: can only report 3 or 4 due to duration but not because of capacity  plateaued --> not drop to zero --> some transferred to short-term memory --> 3 or 4 --> need attention which has a capacity of 4  sensory memory: ~12 items --> attention ~4 items --> short-term memory Sensory Memory  Similar e
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