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Lec 4.docx

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Hywel Morgan

PSY 240 Lec 4 Theoretical Perspectives inAbnormal Psychology • Nature (biological) vs. Nurture (enviroment) o Paradigms  Way to think of something o Major reason why psychology is different from other sciences • Multiple paradigms in psychology • Psychoanalytical Paradigm  Freud o Source of abnormal behaviour was subconscious conflict o Not easily testable o The original psychology paradigm o Use of free association  Abnormal behaviour is caused from conflicts that have been repressed into sub consciousness  All abnormal behaviour a result of conflict occurring in subconscious that is that known to the person.  “Sit and tell me what comes to mind”  Classical psychotherapy, client free associates but does not look at therapist. Stares at nothing • Therapist should ask no questions  Carl Young  Very interested in dream interpretation  Freudian Slip  When an issue in the subconscious pops up in free association • Behaviourism  Counter Freud o Only accounts for behaviours that are measurable o Reaction to psychoanalysis, complete difference from psychoanalytical o Looks at measurable, observable behaviours Biological Models • The current paradigm • Aspects of the brain and how they affect behaviour • “NOTES ON PPT SLIDES” Behavioural Theories • Behaviour is caused by external factors • Learning does not require consciousness • Associative learning  require conscious • “conditioning”  does not require consciousness • Learning  relatively permanent change in behaviour • Associative learning  treatment of disorders through conditioning • Conditioning o Classical  [pavlovian, s-s,] organism learning to associate one stimulus with another stimulus.  Pair two stimuli together  Discovered by Pavlov • Intentions were to look at physiological reactions to simuli • Pavlov observed that the dogs would begin to salivate in anticipation of the food  Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)  stimulus eliciting a reaction that
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