Lec 8 Treatment
• Theoretical perspectives:
o Psychoanalytical Psychotherapies
The original paradigm for dealing with psychopathology
Aka psychodynamic psychotherapy
Based on Freud Pathology is caused my psychic conflict formed
in childhood. Conflict occurs when you have not made it to another level
in development. Freud’s theories not taught today, not as widely accepted.
Freud’s treatment is self-reflection through free association.
Behaviour modification Only focused on pathological behaviour
being displayed at the point of time
Uses methods of conditioning (classical and operant)
No interested in what causes behaviour, not interested in thoughts
and feelings of pass
Solely focused on treating the abnormal behaviour
Major Behavioural Strategies
• Systematic desensitization
o Widely accepted and very effective
o Works very well when treating anxiety disorders (ex.
o Phobias are irrational fears. Fear becomes overwhelming
and disrupts daily routines and behaviours.
o Rational Fear Fear as response to something present that
presents a clear danger
o “Have learned behaviour in a wrong way” Ex. Learned
phobia through conditioning
o Uses classical conditioning in order to unlearn a behaviour.
Pair another stimulus with the phobia source
o Uses same methods of hypnotism and meditation
o Systematically introducing client to stimulus after extensive
• Flooding or Implosive Therapy
o Subjecting client to large stimulus unknowingly.
“Having client stay in room full of the stimulus and has to
stay until no longer responding to it”
o Very useful for OCD
o Very useful in children o Model a behaviour that they have a pathological dislike or
inability to form
o Behaviour could be displayed in order for attention.
Attention is a very powerful enforcer
o Used when trying to forget a behaviour
• Positive Reinforcement
o Used when encouraging the use of a behaviour.
Not psychologically challenging
Applying learning therapies to cognitive mind
Cognitive behavioural therapies
Interested in what you are thinking about doing.
Acknowledges that we think about what we are doing
Interested in individuals inner world of thoughts
Comes from the perspective that psychopathology comes from
faulty thoughts or behaviours learned incorrectly.
Usually have positive results
Works well for depression
o Group Therapies/Family Therapies
Acknowledgement that part of disorder comes from social
In group therapy, members have the same disorder
Family therapy, acknowledgement that family dynamic is part of
• Planned and on-going interactions between therapist and client.
• Today cognitive and behavioural are paired
• Treatment will be determined on theoretical perspective
• Some treatments are better than others for specific disorders
• Medical disease model
• Disorder is due to an imbalance or distortion of a biological component of your