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Lec 8.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Hywel Morgan

Lec 8  Treatment Psychological Therapies • Theoretical perspectives: o Psychoanalytical Psychotherapies  The original paradigm for dealing with psychopathology  Aka psychodynamic psychotherapy  Based on Freud  Pathology is caused my psychic conflict formed in childhood. Conflict occurs when you have not made it to another level in development. Freud’s theories not taught today, not as widely accepted. Freud’s treatment is self-reflection through free association.  Freudian Slip*** o Behavioural  Behaviour modification  Only focused on pathological behaviour being displayed at the point of time  Uses methods of conditioning (classical and operant)  No interested in what causes behaviour, not interested in thoughts and feelings of pass  Solely focused on treating the abnormal behaviour  Major Behavioural Strategies • Systematic desensitization o Widely accepted and very effective o Works very well when treating anxiety disorders (ex. phobias) o Phobias are irrational fears. Fear becomes overwhelming and disrupts daily routines and behaviours. o Rational Fear  Fear as response to something present that presents a clear danger o “Have learned behaviour in a wrong way” Ex. Learned phobia through conditioning o Uses classical conditioning in order to unlearn a behaviour.  Pair another stimulus with the phobia source o Uses same methods of hypnotism and meditation o Systematically introducing client to stimulus after extensive relaxation. • Flooding or Implosive Therapy o Subjecting client to large stimulus unknowingly.  “Having client stay in room full of the stimulus and has to stay until no longer responding to it” o Very useful for OCD • Modeling o Very useful in children o Model a behaviour that they have a pathological dislike or inability to form o Behaviour could be displayed in order for attention.  Attention is a very powerful enforcer • Extinction o Used when trying to forget a behaviour • Positive Reinforcement o Used when encouraging the use of a behaviour.  Not psychologically challenging o Humanistic o Cognitive  Applying learning therapies to cognitive mind  Cognitive behavioural therapies  Interested in what you are thinking about doing.  Psychologically challenging  Acknowledges that we think about what we are doing  Interested in individuals inner world of thoughts  Comes from the perspective that psychopathology comes from faulty thoughts or behaviours learned incorrectly.  Usually have positive results  Works well for depression o Group Therapies/Family Therapies  Acknowledgement that part of disorder comes from social dysfunction  In group therapy, members have the same disorder  Family therapy, acknowledgement that family dynamic is part of the cause • Planned and on-going interactions between therapist and client. • Today cognitive and behavioural are paired • Treatment will be determined on theoretical perspective • Some treatments are better than others for specific disorders Somatic/Biological Therapies • Medical disease model • Disorder is due to an imbalance or distortion of a biological component of your body. o
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