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Lec 9.docx

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Hywel Morgan

Lec 9  Psychopathology of Children andAdolescents *Approaching with respect to DSM4, will discuss the changes with DSM5* Disorders are still present, just reorganized PSY340 Adult Disorders • History o First DSM disregarded child psychopathology o Two categories in DSM  Intellectual disabilities (mental retardation) &Autism (called childhood schizophrenia)  Autism  Children are not responding to stimuli in the same way. In infancy, appeared to be deafness. Term abandoned because hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia (delusions and hallucinations) occur often in children (ex. Imaginary friends). o Disorders first diagnosed in childhood or adolescence o Childhood psychology interest grew in post WW2 o Called applied developmental psychology or clinical child psychology o Large interest in it currently o DSM4 had 10 major categories o DSM4 had its own section for childhood disorders o Adolescence described as time when individual is approaching adulthood o Brain stops growing at 23 o Disorders are diagnosed in infancy and childhood o It is not clear when adolescence ends, some disorders develop after childhood and adolescence. • Modern Child Psychology o DSM5 eliminated childhood disorders o DSM5 classifies Autism under psychotic disorders • DSM Initially had two categories • DSM 4  10 Major Categories o Mental Retardation  Included on Axis 2  Termed intellectual disability now.  DSM5 includes Adaptive behaviour with description  4 Categories dependent on the intelligence: • Mild o IQ < 60 • Moderate o IQ < 55 • Severe o IQ < 40 • Profound o IQ < 20  Most diagnosis used additional considerations • Adaptive behaviour o People with intellectual disability have difficulty with adaptive behaviour o Involves decision making o Has been incorporated into DSM5 o Learning Disorder  DSM4: “Child fall behind developmental norms for reading, writing, or math AND/OR deficits of extreme learning difficulties”  Labelling not appropriate  Possibly did not require a psychologist  DSM5 has further defined extreme  Pathology defined as 2 Standard Deviations from normal o Motor Skill Disorder  Impairment of motor skills  Developmental coordination disorder  When child does not reach motor milestones (walking) o Communication Disorders  Spontaneous remission  Disorder spontaneously disappears in adulthood  Sometimes occurs in communication disorders  Classified as: • Disorders of speaking  Expressive disorder • Disorders of speaking and understanding  Mixed expressive receptive • Disorders of pronunciation  Phonological • Stuttering o Pervasive Developmental Disorders  All disorders are similar to autism  DSM5 changes category intoAutistic Spectrum disorders  In the core, these disorders are the same  DSM5 eliminates the individual diagnostics  Disorders: • Autism o Infants do not develop strong relationship to primary caregiver o Extreme social isolation o Not the same reality as other people o Not interested in interaction with other people o Interested in interaction with themselves or inanimate objects o Often comorbid with mental retardation • Rett’s o Hand ringer (interest in hands not the reality) • Childhood disintegrative disorder o Slow insidious onset to a non-responsive and non-interactive state o Non-social • Asperger’s  Mildest case
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