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Lecture 9

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Lecture #10: Psychopathology and Psychotherapy Symptoms for mental disorders fall into 5 categories: • Affect-related: o Ex. Sadness • Cognitive: o Ex. Obsessive thoughts, delusions, paranoid thoughts • Behavioural: o Ex. Purging • Physical Manifestations: o Ex. <85% of body weight • Interpersonal: o Ex. Interpersonal aggression, erratic interpersonal relationships (borderline) Etiologies • Specific Phobia: respondent conditioning from some previous negative event, pairing that thing with those negative emotions o but, maintained through operant (i.e. avoidance)  and every time you avoid, you’re making the fear stronger • Borderline PD: weak displays of emotion are not reinforced and are invalidated, but then the stronger displays are reinforced (operant conditioning) o Maintained through operant: these strong displays of emotion are when people tend to give in to their requests, so it’s reinforced.  Also, self-harm releases endorphins, for these sorts of people, so that’s reinforced • Alcohol Dependence: operant conditioning from being reinforced from drinking (euphoria, escape from -ve thoughts, social ease) o Maintained through respondent:  Conditioned stimuli for where/when/who with/etc. you normally drink and then that preps you to drink, which means you’ll need more alcohol  These conditioned stimuli also can make you more likely to drink. Like, you are near that friend, you feel like drinking and you didn’t before. Types of Behaviour Therapy: • Behv Therapy (more pure, for anxiety, eating disorders) • Behv Activation (for depression) • CBT (also, looks at thoughts) •
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