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Chapter 16 Notes

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 16 Cultural Psychology Uncertainty about generalizability of results to other cultures Ex. Muller-Lyer Illusion doesnt work for cultures without carpentered corner Cultural Psychology study of how culture shapes psychological processes 1. Culture plays prominent role in mental lives 2. Determine if behavioursmental processes are same in all cultures - Cultural envt more inclusive than social envt o People can enterleave different social situations; cant leave cultural situation o People are exposed to single, all-encompassing set of norms Culture beliefs, values, rules and customs of a group of people who share a language and environment and these beliefs, values, rules, or customs are transmitted through learning across generations; information acquired through imitative or social learning - Other animals display imitative learning (ex. Potato washing monkey; dolphins) - Humans greatest extent and learn faster o All human behaviourthoughts someway shaped by cultural learning Social nature of humans key factor in evolution of brain size - Relation btw average group side and proportion of cerebral cortex - Cognitive capacities highly adaptive for social learning 1. Development of Language - Allow individuals in group to coordinate behaviours - Language key adaptation for cultural learning o More accurately describe threatsopportunities, understand complex social dynamics, describeperpetuate cultural ideas 2. Theory of the Mind identify intentions of fellow members - Humans can accumulate central information highly adaptive o Can acquire far more sophisticated ideasdevl than any individual lifespan o Ex. Chimpanzee (low-precision cultural learning) use same tools for getting ants and rocks than 1000s of years ago Common universal psychological characteristics; shapedexpressed differently across cultures - Potential at birth to become anyone, learn any languageetc - Mind and culture inseparable culture exist from interactions of minds of ppl Universal Behaviours, Reactions, Institutions - Sex, Gender, Family: private copulation, sexual modesty, rape, sexual jealousy - Social Differentiation: Classification of kin, Leaders, Age division of labour - Social Customs: Baby talk, death rites, etiquette, tabooed utterances - Emotion: childhood fear of strangers, envy, rhythm, - Cognition: Aesthetics, supernaturalreligion, medicine, taxonomy Example: Education in Japan vs. North America - NA: tracking system separate children into groups according to performance 1
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