Class Notes (807,841)
Canada (492,871)
Psychology (3,455)
PSY100H1 (1,606)

Readingnote-what and why.docx

16 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY336ReadingNoteDeciandRyan2000TheWhatandWhyofGoalPursuitsHumanNeedsandtheSelfDeterminationofBehaviourAbstractSDTSelfDetermination Theoryto understand human motivation consider innate psychological needs for competence autonomy and relatednessNeeds specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth integrity and wellbeinghypothesis different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioningwellbeing different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behaviour and mental health because they are associated with differing degrees of need satisfactionmost contemporary theories of motivation assume people initiate and persist at behaviours so much that they believe that behaviour will lead to desired outcomes and goalsrecent work on goaldirected behaviour has begun to distinguish among types of goals or outcomesdifferent types of goals have different behavioural and affective consequencesSDT differentiates the content of goals or outcomes and the regulatory processes through which the outcomes are pursued predictionsit also uses concept of innate psychological needs as basis for integrating the differentiations of goal contentsdegree to which people are able to satisfy their basic psychological needs as they pursue and attain their valued outcomes1960s shift toward cognitive theories led to concept of needs being repudiated and replaced by concept of goals as the dominant motivational conceptThe Concept of NeedsEarly Needs Theories1 Hull 1943 suggested that task of psychology is to understand molar behaviour by linking it to an organisms primary needs and the conditions inthe environment relevant to them drive statesdrive states and the stimulusresponse associations used to predict behaviourbut could not provide a meaningful account of a large class of behaviours with no apparent ties to drive reduction this led to recognition of intrinsic motivation2 Murray 1938addressed needs at the psychological level and viewed them as acquireda need is a construct that stands for a force in the brain region that organizes perception apperception intellection conation and action in such a way as to transform in a certain direction an existing unsatisfying situationMurrays needsrepresent an array of salient motives whose pursuit may or may not conduce to optimal functioning that reflect ambient social values and the dynamics of their transmissionfocuses on individual differencesThe Nature of Needs in SDTHullian tradition needs as innate organismic necessities rather than acquired motivesMurray tradition needs as psychological rather than physiologicalSDT needs specify innate psychological nutriments that are essential for ongoing psychological growth integrity and wellbeingassumes a fundamental human trajectory toward vitality integration and healthalso assumes that thus tendency will be actualized so long as the necessary and appropriate nutriments are attainable but give way when under threat or deprivationassociated with effective functioningpsychological health requires satisfaction of all three needs one or two are not enoughSDT maintains that a psychological need can be identified by observing that positive psychological consequences results from conditions that allow its satisfaction and negative consequences accrue its situations that thwart itThe organismic dialectichumans active growthoriented naturally inclined toward integration of their psychic elements into a unified sense of self and integration of selves into larger social structurespart of the adaptive designrequire fundamental nutriments for experiencing competence relatedness and autonomytowards achieving effectiveness connectedness and coherencebasic needs play an essential role in cultural transmission helping to account for how memes are assimilated and maintained in and across diverse human groupspeople will tend to pursue goals domains and relationships that allow or support their need satisfactionto the extend they are successful in finding such opportunities they will experience positive psychological outcomesNeeds in SDT versus drive theoriesHulls and Freuds drivebased behaviours typically regulated by psychological processes interface with issues of autonomy competence and relatednessset point of human organism in drive theories is quiescence or passivityoneed satisfaction is a process of replenishing deficienciesopurpose of behaviour is need satisfactionSDT set point is growthoriented activityopeople as naturally inclined to act on their inner and outer environments engage activities that interest them and move toward personal and interpersonal coherenceodo not have to be pushed or prodded to actoinnate life processes and their accompanying behaviours can occur naturally with prod of need deficitoPiaget 1971 it is inherent in the assimilation schema to functionin peoples nature to act in direction of increased psychological differentiation and integration in terms of their capacities their valuing processes and their social connectedness
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.