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PSY100 Chapter 6 notes.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 6Introspectionprocess of thinking about ones own thoughts and feelings then talking about them makes thoughts public and available for others to studynot reliableThus psychologists study observable actionsoBehaviours that peopleanimals displaySkinner thought he could change animals behaviour by providing incentives for performing specific actsHow Did the Behavioural Study of Learning Develop Learningwhen animals benefit from experience so that their behaviour is better adapted to the environment crucialEssence of learning understanding how events are relatedConditioningenvironmental stimuli and behavioural responses become connectedClassical conditioning Pavlovian conditioninglearn that two types of events go togetherOperant conditioning Instrumental conditioninglearn that a behaviour leads to a particular outcomeOther types of learning observing othersAccording to Watson founder of behaviourism observable behaviour was the only valid indicator of psychological activityWatson believed animals and humans were born with potential to learn anythingJohn Lockes idea of tabula rasa blank state states that infants are born knowing nothing all knowledge is acquired through sensory experiencesBehavioural Responses are conditionedPavlov interested in salivary reflex automatic and unlearned response that occurs when a food stimulus is presented to a hungry animalSalivation at the sight of a person or bowl is not automatic thus must be acquired through experiencenot an inborn reflexPavlovs ExperimentsNeutral stimulusunrelated to the salivary reflex presented with stimulus that reliably produces the reflexConditioning trialpairing of neutral stimulusreflex repeated a number of timesCritical trialsneutral stimulus is presented alone reflex is measuredClassical conditioning Pavlovian conditioningneutral stimulus elicits reflexive response because it has become associated with a stimulus that already produces that responseUnconditioned response URresponse that doesnt have to be learned reflex that occurs without prior trainingUnconditioned stimulus USstimulus that elicits response reflex without prior learningConditioned stimulus CSstimulus that elicits response only after learning has taken placeConditioned response CRresponse to a conditioned stimulus that ahs been learnedDog Experiment1Unconditioned StimulusFoodUnconditioned ResponseCauses dog to salivateNeutral StimulusMetronome clicking doesnt cause salivation2During conditioning trails metronome clicks presented to dog with food3During critical trials metronome is now conditioned stimulus and is presented without food dog salivates4Result Metronome conditioned response causes dog to salivate conditioned responseAcquisition Extinction and Spontaneous RecoveryAcquisitiongradual formation of an association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli Ex rainplant bloomContiguitycritical element in acquisition of learned association is stimuli occurring together in time strongest conditioning occurs when there is very brief delay between CS and USAnimals sometimes have to learn when associations are no longer adaptiveIf metronome is presented too many times without food metronome is no longer food predictor of food thus salivation response gradually disappearsextinctionExtinctionConditioned response is weakened when CS is repeated without unconditioned stimulusCR is extinguished when conditioned stimulus no longer predicts unconditioned stimulusSpontaneous recovery previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of CS single pairing of CS with US will reestablish CRExtinction reduces strength of associative bond but doesnt eliminate itExtinction is form of learning that overwrites previous associationGeneralization discrimination secondorder conditioningStimulus generalizationstimuli similar but not identical to CS will produce CRAdaptive because CS is rarely experienced repeatedly in identical mannerStimulus discriminationanimals learn to differentiate between 2 similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus and other is notCS becomes directly associated with other stimuli associated with USsecondorder conditioningLinking reflex across a second stimulus by pairing with first stimulusCelebritiesFamous figures with brand names can occur without our awareness or intention
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