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PSY100 Chapter 8 Notes.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 8 Gerd Gigrenzer proposed dread risksDread Riskslow probability events that are highly publicized has dire consequences affects reasoning and decision makingEx After 911 number of people who die in car accidents per year exceeds those who die in airplane disastersHow does the mind represent informationCognitive psychology originally cased on notion that brain represents information and act of thinking is cognitionCognitionmanipulation of representations mental activity such as thinking and representing information to understand objects that we occur in environmentEx Menu represents foodTwo basic types of representationsoAnalogicalcharacteristics of actual objectsEx Family trees mapsoSymbolicwordsideas abstract doesnt have relationship to physical qualities of no relationship to object it namesEx Violin doesnt look like a violinMental Images are Analogical RepresentationsExperiment objects were rotated and presented in different positions upright upsidedown etcoTime a participant took to determine object as normal or mirror image depended on degree of rotationoFarther object was rotated from upright position longer it tookoParticipants mentally rotated representations of objects choosing to look at upright positionoVisual imagery associated with activity in visual perceptionprimary visual cortexWhen retrieving information from memory ex picture in news representation of picture in mind parallels representation in brainMental image not perfectly accurate corresponds to physical object it representsIf something cant be perceived by perceptual system cant form complete analogical representationMental mapsmix of analogicalsymbolic representationsConcepts Are Symbolic RepresentationsSymbolic representations consist of words which can represent abstract ideas verballyoEx Picturing lemon doesnt tell you how it tastes or what to do with itKnowing edible portions of lemon tells you how to use itMemory systems organized so we can quickly search up informationCategorizationgrouping things based on shared properties thus reduces amount of knowledge we must hold in memory highly efficientMust store unique knowledge for each member of a category Ex has 4 strings vs has 6 stringsConceptcategoryclass including subtypes andor individual itemsConcept consists of mental representations of a relation between representations or of a qualitydimensionOrganization revolves around a common themeConcept ensures that we dont have to store every object relation or quality individuallyStorage of abstract representation based on properties that itemsideas shareDefining attribute modeleach concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of the categoryFails to capture key aspects of how we organize things in headModel suggests membership follows an allornone basisOften make exceptions to categorizations allowing members into groups even if they dont have all the attributes or excluding them even if they have all the attributes Ex penguins are birdsDA model suggests that all of categorys attributes are equal when defining categoryoReal deal some attributes are more important in defining memberships category boundaries are fuzzyModel suggests that all members of category are equalAlternatives to defining attribute model prototype model and exemplar modelPrototype modelbest example for category some are more representative of others Flexible in concept representationDrawback different prototype can be chosen for different reasons ex most common most resemblance
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