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Notes From Lectures (what prof says) and text! very good, get an A!

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

CHAPTER 1 A method for observing the working brain: brain imaging- involves assessing changes in the metabolic activity of the brain, such as noting where the blood flows as people process info. Changes in blood flow represent which parts of brain are associated with behaviours Study: white student shown pictures of black students. Some white students detected threat or fear, their amyglada was activated. Thos who were familiar with people, had no response People are understood by individual factors, such as how a person brain processes info and also by how society shapes the way we behave with others and other things. Ultimate ambition of psychologists: explain human behaviour!, and they do this by studying people biologically, individually and socially. First theme: research on mind, brain, and behaviour has accumulated over time to produce the principals of psychological science. Second theme: a new biological revolution is energizing research of the human mind & behavior Three developments in the revolution: brain chemistry (actions of chemicals in our brain...), the human genome (influence of genetic processes...), and watching the working brain. There is some localization of function, but many different brain regions participate to produce behaviour and mental activity! Third theme- mind has been shaped by evolution (evolutionary approach is relevant to social behaviour). We have built-in mechanism that solve reoccurring problems faced by our ancestors By-products of adaptive solutions: driving cars, reading books, using cell phones [very recent] Internet: a new form of culture Fourth theme: mind and behaviour can be studied on many levels of analysis PAGE 14 SEE FIGURE 1.4!! Three broadly defined categories of analysis: Social, Individual, and biological Pleasant music increases brain chemical, serotonin, relevant to mood. [effect behaviour] Nature-Nurture debate: whether psychological characteristics are due to nature or nurture Schizophrenia- have unusual thoughts, and bipolar disorder-dramatic mood swings It was assumed the causes for these diseases were nurture BUT drugs helped discovered that these diseases are also heritable, and it is both nature (the way their brain functions) and nurture Many mental disorders result from events in life, posttraumatic stress disorder, but this can also be caused by having a predisposition of getting the disorder (nature) Mind-Body Problem: whether the minds are body are separate or intertwined? Rene Descartes- promoted first theory that the mind and body were intertwined (DUALISM) reflex predictable action, and he concluded that the rational mind, was separate from body Charles Darwin natural selection, survival of the fittest. [finches on the galpagos island Wundt- products of the physiological actions of the brain take time to complete, studied speeds at which tasks were completed. He developed method of introspection: systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that require people to inspect and report of things ( blueness of sky) Tichener- used methods of introspection to develop structuralism: conscious experience can be studied when it is broken down into its underlying component. His approach was also functionalism: concerned with adaptive purpose or function of mind. Jon Dewey= thought student properly rather than mind drilling Critic of structuralism, James, noted that the mind consisted of a continuous series of thoughts, stream of consciousness. Gestalt theory- the whole is different from the sum of its parts, two people can look at the same object and see two different things. Psychoanalysis: method by Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious. Used a technique called free association, when people could talk about whatever they wanted to for as long as they wanted to. Behaviourism- environment forces our behaviour Skinner- famous for taking up mantle of behaviourism. Denied the existence of mental states, rather believed that mental states are nothing but an illusion. Was interested in how repeated behaviours were shaped by previous events/consequences. Miller- launched cognitive revolution- concerned with higher-order mental functions, such as intelligence + thinking. Research showed that the way people think influences their behaviour. Information-Processing theory- viewed the brain (hardware) that ran behind the mind ( software), the brain takes in info. Psychological scientist use methods of science to study the brain, the mind and behaviour Psychological practitioners apply findings of psychological science in need to treat and apply. Personality psychologists- interested in individual preferences Social psychologists- focus on the influences that things and other people have on us Developmental psychologists- address changes in min and behaviour over a life time Behavioural neuroscientist- study biological mechanisms responsible for behaviour Experiment Psychopathologists- study abnormal or disorder behaviour, like music sad CHAPTER 2!! Scientific inquiry- study of empirical questions, questions that van be answered by observation Replication- repiriton of an experiment to confirm results! Theory (model ) Hypothesis(prediction)Research (collection of data) A theory is good when one can produce a variety of TESTABLE hypotheses. Three main designs to choose from: experimental, correalational, and descriptive. Confound- anything that affects a dependant variable that may unintentially vary between the different experimental conditions of a study. [control, keeping everything constant] Random assignment- procedure for pacing research into conditions of an experiment in which each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to nay level of the independent variable. Correalational study- research method that shows how variables are naturally related,. Third-variable problem: not be sure if the result is right maybe another factor involved. Another problem with correalational study: not knowing the direction f the cause-effect factor Descriptive Studies: involves observing and noting peoples behaviour [type of food people eat] Naturalistic observation: the observer is apart from and makes no attempt to alter situation Participant observation- research is involved in situation Problems with participant observation: people may change their behaviour knowing someone is watching or the observer losing neutrality. Observational techniques- research method of careful and systematic assessment and coding of overt behaviour. For example, watching peoples gestures when they have a drug injected Reactivity- effect occurs when the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behaviour s being observed. They might try and act or behave a certain way Observer bias- systematic errors in observation that occur due to an observers expectation. For instance, of the observing is noting facial expression, he might note down women as being sad because men dont show sadness. Observer bias can lead to changes in behaviour of the people being observed, this is known as the experiment expectancy effect! So it is best, if the people dont know your hypothesis
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