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Chapter 15 study guide: Social Psychology

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 15 Social Psychology -fundamental Attribution Error: the tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behavior -social psychology: The branch of psychology concerned with how others influence the way a person thinks, feels, and acts. How Do We Know Ourselves? -the self involves the mental representation of personal experience and includes thought processes, a physical body, and a conscious experience that one is separate and unique from others. Our Self-Concept consists of Self-Knowledge -self concept: - the full store of knowledge that people have about themselves. Self-Awareness -William James and George Mead differentiated between the self as the knower (I) and the self as the object that is known (me) the objectified self. -I is involved in executive functions such as choosing, planning, and exerting control. -the objectified self is the knowledge that you hold about yourself, as when you think about your best and worst qualities. -self awareness: a sate in which the sense of self is the object of attention -Rober Wicklund: Objective self awareness; self awareness leads people to act in accordance with their personal values and beliefs. -Tory Higgins: Self-discrepancy theory; this awareness of differences between personal standards and goals leads to strong emotions -because of patients with brain injuries we know that self-awareness is highly dependent on the normal development of the frontal lobes of the brain -patients with brain injuries show a surprising lack of interest in or knowledge about their disorders. -People with damage to the frontal lobes often have social and motivational impairments that interfere with job performance. -shows that frontal-lobe patients often have distortions in how they process information about the self. Self-Schema -cocktail party effect occurs because information about the self is processed deeply, thoroughly, and automatically. -Hazel Markus: the self-schema is the cognitive aspect of the self-concept, consisting of an integrated set of memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self. -self-schema consists of those aspects of your behavior and personality that are important to you -helps us perceieve, organize, interpret and use information about the self -self-schemas may lead to enhanced memory for information that is processed in a self-referential manner. -activation of the middle of the frontal lobes when people process information about themselves -the great the activation of this area during self-referencing, the more likely you are to remember the item later during a surprise memory task. Working Self-Concept -The immediate experience of self, the working self-concept, is limited to the amount of personal information that can be processed cognitively at any given time. -thus your self-descriptions vary as a function of which memories you retrieve, which situation you are in, the people you are with, and your role in that situation Independent and Interdependent selves -An important way in which people differ in their self-concepts is whether they view themselves as fundamentally separate from or inherently connected to other people -the collective self emphasizes connections to family, social groups, and ethnic groups and conformity to societal norms and group cohesiveness -Hazel Markus: people in collectivist cultures tend to have interdependent self-construals in which their self concepts are determined to a large extent by their social roles and personal relationships -people in individualist cultures tend to have independent self-construals. -Their sense of self is based on their feelings of being distinct from others. Perceived Social Regard Influences Self-Esteem -self-esteem is the evaluative aspect of the self-concept, referring to whether people perceive themselves to be worthy or unworthy, good or bad. -self-esteem is related to the self concept it is possible for people to objectively believe positive things about themselves without really liking themselves very much.
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