Class Notes (811,309)
Canada (494,638)
Psychology (3,457)
PSY100H1 (1,606)

Social Psychology – Chapter 12 Summary.docx

13 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Social PsychologyChapter 12 Summary Even amid the horrors of war we expect the military to behave in a civilized and professional manner This is why the human rights violations by Canadian soldiers in Somalia and the abuses at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq are so shocking As soon as word got out about the Abu Ghraib situation the government made a statement saying that the incidents were carried out by a small group of way ward soldiers working alone This is because the idea that only a few troubled individuals were responsible for torturing people is bizarrely comforting According to social psychologists there was nothing wrong with the soldiers who carried out the tortures Saying that they are probably normal people caught up in overwhelming situations that shape their actions The probable factors that influenced their actions might be because There was an absence of any real authority in the prison weakening any responsibilitypeople are usually obedient to authority especially at a time of warThe working conditions promoted aggression the soldiers didnt thought they were going to be working in traffic control instead they were at a prison working long hours in hot temperatures while they were under the threat of deathMembers of the enemy group are viewed as being all the same and are treated in a dehumanized fashionThe Stanford prison study demonstrated the speed at which apparently normal university students could be transformed into the social roles they were playing HOWEVER MANY BEHAVIOURS BECOME MORE UNDERSTANDABLE WITHIN PARTIBULAR CONTEXTSo THE POWER OF THE SITUATIONSome attitudes are complex and involve multiple components Ex You might enjoy eating ice cream but believe it is bad for your health We Form Attitudes through Experience and Socialization Generally the more we are exposed to something the more heshe tends to like ito Ex In a study a psychologist exposed a few items to people few or many times The more they were exposed to something and become familiar with it the more people had more positive attitudes towards them MERE EXPOSURE EFFECTAttitudes can be conditioned advertisers use classical conditioning Ex seeing an attractive celebrity paired with a product we develop morepositive attitude about the producto Operant conditioning shapes attitudes too if you are awarded with good grades each time you study you will develop a more positive attitude toward studyingo Attitudes are shaped through socialization politicians media teachers religious leaders BEhaviours Are Consistent with Strong Attitudes Since attitudes are adavptive they guide behavior IN general the stronger and more personally relevelnt the attitude the more likely it will predict behavior be consistent over time and resistant to chanceAttitudes formed through direct experience tend to predict behavior better Ex no matter what kind of parent you think you will be for example once you have seen one child through toddlerhood you will have formed very strong attitudes about childrearing techniquesthis predicts behavior consistent with the attitude Russel Fazio has shown that easily activated attitudes are more stable predictive of behavior and resistant to change Thus the quicker you recall your psych course the more likely you will attend lectures Ex of IMPLICIT ATTITUDES you might purchase a product endorsed by a celebrity even though you have no conscious memory of having seen the celebrity use the product Discrepancies Lead to Dissonance Ex when people smoke even when knowing that it might kill them A basic assumption of dissonance theory is that dissonance causes anxiety and tension and therefore motivates people to reduce the dissonance and relieve displeasure POSTDECISIONAL DISSONANCEo Holding positive attitudes about two options but having to choose one of them causes dissonanceo POSTDECIONAL DISSONANCE it motivates you to focus on the positive aspects of the option you want to pick and helps you focus on the negative aspects of the option you dislike Ex you want to buy a car rather than a truck So youd think of a gazillion reasons why you should by the carATTITUDE CHANGE In an experiment they made participants perform extremely boring tasks for an hour and were later paid either 1 or 20 to lie and tell the next person that the task was interesting educational and worthwhile Nearly all of them lied Later under the guise of a different survey the same participants were asked how enjoyable the task had been The ones who were paid 1 thought it was much more enjoyable than the people who were paid 20o This effect occurred because those paid 1 had insufficient monetary justification for lying So to justify why they went along with the lie they CHANGED THEIR ATTITUDES about how fun the task wasOne way to change peoples attitudes is to change their behaviors first using as few incentives as possible JUSTIFYING EFFORT On university campuses administrators impose rules and penalties to discourage having But fratssororitiessport teams still do it and put people through embarrassingdifficult rites of passage This makes membership in the group seem much more valuable and makes the group more cohesive When people put themselves through pain embarrassment or discomfort to join a group they experience dissonance BUT they resolve the dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it Attitudes Can Be Changed through PersuasionPersuasion is most likely to happen when people pay attention to a message understand it and find ait convincing The message must be memorable so its impact lasts over timeAccording to Richard Petty and John Cacioppos ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL persuasion works via two routes
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.