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Psy100- Chapter 6.doc

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Chapter 6Learning and RewardLearningan enduring change in behavior that results from experienceis the result of many unique mechanisms that solve individual adaptive problems not of general learning mechanismsoEg lungs breathe ears hear No general sensing organConditioning environmental stimuli and some sort of behavioral response become connectedTWO TYPESClassical conditioning when we learn that two types of events go together such as walking in rain and wetnessOperant conditioning when we learn that a behavior leads to a particular outcome such as studying leads to better grades Skinner more interested in this Rise of learning theoryRise due to dissatisfaction with use of verbal reports to assess mental states Freudian ideasdream analysis free associationWatson Started school of behaviorismbased on belief humans and animals are born with potential to learn anythingoBased on John Lockes idea of tabula rasa blank slateenvironment was SOLE determinant of learningHe was involved by Ivan Pavlov who won Nobel Prize for his work on digestive systemosalivary reflex salivation at sight of a bowl is NOT automatic acquired through experienceNeutral stimulus unrelated to salivary reflex ringing bellClassical or Pavlovian conditioning when a neutral object causes reflexive response when associated with stimulus that already has that responsemeans by which animals come to predict the occurrence of eventspassiveoUR unconditioned response salivation with food aloneoUS unconditioned stimulus foodoCS conditioned stimulus only after trainingoCR conditioned response salivary reflex learned responseNote UR and CR not identicalUS produces more saliva than CSCR usually less strong than URstimulus that occurs before US is more easily conditioned than one that comes after itobecause one before predicts itAcquisitiongradual formation of an association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuliCRITICAL element is contiguity stimuli occur together in timeSubsequent research has shown best if very brief DELAY between CS and USExtinctionCR is weakened when CS is repeated without USo the response is extinguished when CS no longer predicts USoextinction inhibits but does not break the associative bondSpontaneous recoverypreviously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of CStemporary but quickly fade unless CS is again paired with USeven single pairing of CS with US will reestablish CRStimulus generalizationwhen stimulus is similar but not identical to CS produce the CR Stimulus discriminationanimals learn to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with US and other is notSecondorder conditioning
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