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Psy100-Chapter 13.doc

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Chapter 13Disorders of mind and body Psychopathologysickness or disorder of the mindPrevailing view in 20th century is that the origins of psychopathology are in psychological turmoil and biological dysfunction Freud was the first to develop a theory of psychopathology and to propose specific treatment techniques based on his theory Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Metal Disorders DSM a handbook of clinical disorders used for diagnosing psychopathology Multiaxial system based on the growing realization that mental health is affected by a variety of factorsAssessment examination of a persons mental state in order to diagnose possible mental illness Cognitivebehavioural approach a diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of learned maladaptive cognitions Diathesisstress model a diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating eventAnxiety disorders characterized by the experience of excessive anxiety in the absence of true dangerPhobia an irrational fear of a specific object or situationGeneralized anxiety disorder a diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or eventPanic disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by sudden overwhelming attacks of terrorAgoraphobia an anxiety disorder marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult or impossibleObsessivecompulsive disorder OCD an anxiety disorder characterized by frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions basal ganglia is smaller and has structural abnormalities impulse controlMajor depression characterized by severe negative moods and lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities Dysthymia a form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depressionBipolar disorder a mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and maniaCyclothymia a less extreme form of bipolar disorderSeasonal affective disorder SAD a disorder in which periods of depression occur during the times of year with less sunLearned helplessness model a cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events around themSchizophrenia a mental disorder characterized by alterations in perceptions emotions thoughts or consciousnessPositive symptoms symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations that are excesses in behaviourNegative symptoms symptoms of schizophrenia marked by deficits in functioning such as apathy lack of emotion and slowed speech and movementDelusions false personal beliefs based on incorrect inferences about realityHallucinations false sensory perceptions that are experienced without an external sourceLoosening of associations a speech pattern among schizophrenic patients in which their thoughts are disorganized or meaninglessPersonality disorder a class of mental disorders marked by inflexible and maladaptive ways of interacting with the worldBorderline personality disorder a personality disorder characterized by identify affective and impulse disturbancesAntisocial personality disorder marked by a lack of empathy and remorseAutism a developmental disorder involving deficits in social interactions impaired communication and restricted interestsAspergers syndrome highfunctioning autism in which children of normal intelligence have specific deficits in social interactionsAttentiondeficithyperactivity disorder ADHD characterized by restless inattentive and impulsive behaviours Classification and ConceptualizationMust be maladaptive rather than deviantThe diagnostic criteria for all major disorders include the stipulation that the symptoms of the disorder must interfere with the least one aspect of the persons lifeKraepelin first to propose classification system for mental disorders and disorders were grouped based on the groups of symptoms that occurred togetherDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was published in 1952 which has a multiaxial system mental health is affected by variety of factors not given a single label table 131 pg 525Mental disorders must be assessed before diagnosis
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