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Psy100-Chapter 9.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

Chapter 9 MotivationMotivation factors that energies direct or sustain behaviour FOUR essential qualities of motivational states Energizing directive persistence differ in strengthClark Hull proposed that when an animal is deprived of some need a specific drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation arousal Some behaviours are motivated for their own sakeOne of the hallmarks of childhood is curiosity a mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behaviorLearning theory rewarded behaviours increase in frequency rewarding intrinsically motivated behaviours would reinforce them Evidence that extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation and decrease the rewarded behaviour Selfperception theory states that people are seldom aware of their specific motives and draw inferences about their motivation on the basis of what seems to make the most sensePeople feel anxious when sociallyisolatedNeedtobelong theory need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposesSocial exclusion theory anxiety warns you that you may be facing rejection from the groupSocial comparison theory we are motivated to have accurate info about themselves and othersSocial dilemma when there is a motivational conflict both to cooperate and to be selfishPeople are sensitive to cheaters humans have an inference mechanism for detecting cheating specific to the social domain People are rejected for cheating group members Challenging goals arouse the greatest effort focusing on concrete shortterm goals facilitates achieving logterm goalsDeindividuation a phenomenon of low selfawareness in which people lose their individuality and fail to attend to personal standardsOne way to reduce negative affect is to avoid selfawareness through escapismTOTE model model of selfregulation in which people evaluate progress in achieving goalsDelaying gratification children who are able to turn hot cognitions into cold cognitions have an easier time delaying gratification Hot cognitions focus on the rewarding pleasurable aspects of objects whereas cold cognitions focus on conceptual or symbolic meanings This hotcold distinction is based on how the info is processed in the brain with the hot system being amygdale based and the cold system hippocampus based The amygdale processes the reward features of biologically significant stimuli whereas the hippocampus processes plans strategies and goals and is therefore responsible for selfcontrolSelfregulation requires awareness and the ability to inhibit the behaviour People with prefrontal damage have difficulty focusing on a task because they are unable to ignore other stimuli in the environment Working memory is important for the temporal organization of memory which is often required for selfregulatory task
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