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University of Toronto St. George
Dax Urbszat

Chapter 6 LearningBackgroundPhobiasoIrrational fears of specific objects or situationsoOften the result of another learning process termed classical conditioningoRelatively commonLearningoRefers to a relatively durable change in behaviour of knowledge that is due to experienceoOne of the most fundamental concepts in all of psychologyoLearning includes the acquisition of knowledge and skills but it also shapes personal habits personality traits emotional responses and personal preferencesoMuch of your behaviour is the result of learningoNot exclusively human processmost organisms are capable of learningConditioningoInvolves learning associations between events that occur in an organisms environmentClassical ConditioningClassical conditioningoA type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulusoThe process was first described around 1900 by Ivan PavlovSometimes called Pavolian conditioning in tribute to himPavlovs Demonstration Psychic ReflexesPavlov was studying the role of saliva in the digestive process of dogs when he stumbled onto what he called psychic reflexesHis subjects were dogs restrained in harness in an experimental chamberTheir saliva was collected by means of a surgically implanted tube in the salivary glandPavlov would present meat powder to a dog and then collect the resulting salivaFINDINGS Dogs accustomed to the procedure would start salivating before the meat powder was presentedthey would salivate in response to a clicking sound made by the device that was used to present the meat powderTo clarify what was happening he paired the presentation of the meat powder with various stimuli that would stand out in the laboratory situationoHe used a simple auditory stimulusthe presentation of a toneoAfter the tone and the meat powder had been presented together a number of times the tone was presented aloneoResult the dogs responded by salivating to the sound of the tone aloneSignificance tone started out as a neutral stimulusIt did not originally produce the response of salivationBy pairing tone with a stimulus meat powder it produced the salivation responsePavlov demonstrated how learned associationsbasic building blocks of the entire learning processwere formed by events in an organisms environmentTerminology and ProceduresUnconditioned stimulus UCSoA stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioningUnconditioned response UCRoAn unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioningThe bond Pavlov noted between meat powder and salivation was a natural unlearned associationoIt did not have to be created through conditioningThus its called an unconditioned associationThe link between the tone and salivation was established through conditioningoThus its called a conditioned associationConditioned stimulus CSoA previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned responseConditioned response CRoA learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioningoTraditionally been characterized as reflexes that are said to be elicited drawn forth because most of them are relatively automatic or involuntaryPavlovs psychic reflex came to be called the conditioned reflexA trial in classical conditioningoConsists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuliAlthough classical conditioning generally proceeds gradually it can occur quite rapidly sometimes in just one pairing of the CS and UCSClassical Conditioning in Everyday LifeLaboratory experiments on classical conditioning typically include simple responses such as salivation eyelid closure knee jerks the flexing of various limbs and fear responsesClassical conditioning often plays a key role in shaping emotional responses such as fearsoEg phobiasReal life exampleoAdvertisers frequently pair their products with attractive or wellknown people in an attempt to elicit positive reactions and positive decisions Ie buy the product on the part of the consumer
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