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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 10 Motivation and EmotionBackground Motivationrelates to the study of the processes involved in goaldirected behaviourOur goaldirected behaviour is often associated with specific emotionsthus motivation and emotion are often linkedMotivational Theories and ConceptsMotivesoNeeds wants interests and desires that propel people in certain directionsMotivation involves goaldirected behaviourStudy conducted by Donald Taylor McGill UniversityoStreet kids have rejected traditional society and its standards and goals but have not replaced these goals with any longterm goals of their ownoStreet kids are characterized by little motivation to reach definable and coherent goalsDrive Theories This approach to understanding motivation was explored most fully by Clark Hull in the 1940s and 1950sHulls concept of drive was derived from Walter Cannons observation that organisms seek to maintain homeostasisa state of physiological equilibrium or stabilityoEg human body temperature normally fluctuates around 37 degrees CelsiusWhen temperature rises you will perspireWhen temperature decreases you will shiverThese actions are designed to move your body back to 37 degrees CelsiusDrive theories apply the concept of homeostasis to behaviourA driveoAn internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tensionoThese unpleasant states of tension are viewed as disruptions of the preferred equilibrium Drive theoryoWhen individuals experience a drive they are motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reductionEg hunger motiveif you go without food for a while you begin to experience some discomfortThis internal tension the drive motivates you to obtain foodoEating reduces the drive and restores physiological equilibrium However drive theories cannot explain all motivationoHomeostasis appears irrelevant to some human motives such as a thirst for knowledgeoMotivation can occur without drive arousal Eg you may stop for ice cream after seeing an ad even though you are not hungry Drive theories assume that people always try to reduce internal tension Incentive TheoriesIncentive theories proposeoExternal stimuli regulate motivational statesAn incentiveoAn external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviouroEg a promotion at work approval from friends an A on an exam ice creamSome incentives may reduce drives but others may notDrive and incentive models of motivation are often contrasted as push vs pull theoriesoDrive theories focus on how internal states of tension push people in certain directionsMotivation lies within an organismoIncentive theories emphasize on how external stimuli pull people in certain directionsSource of motivation lies outside the organism in the environment Incentive models dont operate according to the principle of homeostasisIn comparison to drive theories incentive theories emphasize environmental factors and downplay the biological bases of human motivationExpectancyvalue modelsIncentive theories that take reality into accountthe reality that we cant always obtain the goals we desireAccording to expectancyvalue theoryoOnes motivation to pursue a particular course of action will depend on two factorsExpectancy about ones chances of attaining the incentivethe value of the desired incentiveeg your motivation to pursue a promotion at work will depend on your estimate of the likelihood that you can get the promotion expectancy and on how appealing the promotion is to you valueEvolutionary Theoriesargue that natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive successpassing on genes to the next generationthey explain motives such as affiliation achievement dominance aggression and sex drive in terms of their adaptive valueevolutionary analyses of motivation are based on the premise that motives can best be understood in terms of the adaptive problems they have solved for our huntergatherer ancestors
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