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Lec 4 notes

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Alison Smith

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HLTB01 – Lec 4 Theories of Aging and Demographics of Aging *CURRENT EVENTS -On Oct 4/2010, Robert Edwards a British scientist was credited for in vitro fertilization (IVF)  he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine -winners of the Nobel Prize receive 1.5 million USD, a degree, gold medal -Robert Edwards is an 85 yr old professor at the university of Cambridge in England and started working on IVF in the 1950s -he developed IVF by removing eggs from woman, fertilizing them outside the body and then implanting them into the womb -in 1978, Louise Brown became the first baby born through this procedure in Britain Edwards was working as physiologist in the 1990s before -he started his research by experimenting on rabbits. -IVF stirred up a lively ethical debate -currently facing opposition from the Vatican and governments -also a lot of skepticism from colleagues -Fertility rates decline when a woman is in her 30s -Difficult to conceive passed that age -in Quebec, the provincial government paid for 3 IVF treatments -there is talk that Ontario should do the same thing and should recover costs of this procedure for 3 treatments for women under the age of 42 -however, Ontario does not cover the costs. -IVF costs $10,000/treatment.  the question now is, is IVF medically necessary? -despite the doctor shortage in Canada, the Cdn govt is unwilling to accept foreign trained doctors -according to latest research, there is a growing number of Cdn born students who are getting their medical degrees overseas and failing to be certified back in Canada -when trying to receive certification, there is a 58% passing rate for med grads who have studied overseas compared to 97% passing rate for Canadian/US med grads. -Pediatricians are recommending a new vaccine for babies -Baby’s are infected with Rotavirus – leading cause of gastroenteritis -causes inflammation of stomach and intestines – leads to diaherra -Extremely contagious and cause shock in babies -Infants less than 2 are at most risk -So in the future, baby’s will be receiving an additional vaccine for Rotavirus --We don’t play b/c we’re old, we’re old b/c we don’t play -things we need to do for long life: need to dream, willingness to achieve/succeed Theories of Aging -based on what we believe and what we think -no difference b/w someone using glasses and using a wheelchair but society has labeled ppl using a wheelchair as disable b/c there are more ppl using glasses than wheelchairs –so its sort of like a norm What is a theory? -something that started w/ a hypothesis -not a fact ie: MS was believed to be auto-immune but this is not the case -aging brings about different challenges -changes in demographics -many question which demographic is going to fill the void left by the baby boomers -theres going to be a huge demand for doctors and other health care practitioners -gerontology is a booming field -who will care for the growing elderly population? -who will pay for their care? -there are costs associated with Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease -tarenflurbil – supposed to help w/ treating Alzheimer’s Disease, but research shows it doesn’t help -in US, costs for treating patients with Alzheimer’s is $130 billion/yr -treatment for Alzheimer’s was first prescribed in 1946 -in Alzheimer’s plaques form in the extracellular components of the brain and tangles (common hallmark) in neurons; cause is still unknown -only 6% of cnds 65+ live in nursing homes -most of ppl in this group will have Alzheimer’s or other forms of Dementia -there are reports on nursing homes regarding their accountability *ARTICLE: Dr Jane Aronson (2003) published a research paper on nursing homes -many ppl are receiving homecare services in their own home now -but these ppl reported this as a daunting process having a stranger (homecare provider) coming into their home and telling them what to do -they are often embarrassed -Gerontology provides us with facts and knowledge about growing old. THEORIES OF AGING: Biological and Psychosocial Theories  -models and theories are often times not carefully distinguished from one another in the literature and create this ongoing problem  Aging is defined as the: progressive loses of biological function accompanied by decreasing fertility and increasing mortality with advancing age  death is the final event Theories of Aging:  Aging processes occur at the biological, psychological and social levels.  Bengtson, Rice and Johnson (1999) argued – that robust theories are a prerequisite to advance gerontology  Gender is one of the strongest predictors of life expectancy with women living longer than men. -women still live longer than men -longer life expectancy occurs b/c of better sanitation, better medical procedures….. -in adulthood men develop heart conditions earlier than women since men work in hazardous professions -10 yrs after menopause the risk of heart disease increases in women -women report poorer health than men despite living longer -men are affected with cardiovascular diseases -women report nonlife threatening diseases -divorce creates more problems - more stress in men and women involved -widows face their own problems after death of spouse -as we get older we become wiser  w/ every yr we learn more thru experience Aging Well -there are many ways to age well -life activity -material security -physical health and functional status -cognitive efficacy -social resources Prominent Biological/Physiological Theories of Aging (1)Genetic Mutation Theories (2)Cellular Waste Accumulation Theories (3)Wear and Tear Theories (4)Classical Theories Deviation Amplification Mechanisms: Biological Processes- Deviation Amplification Theory:  Apoptosis – programmed cell death; meaning that when a cell gets old/weak, its programmed to destroy itself  Telomeres – are a DNA sequence that appears at the end of each chromosome; when cells divide, telomeres get shorter  Telomerase – an enzyme that is present in some cells that can prevent telomeres from unraveling by restoring telomeres after each cell division Stochastic Influence:  Hayflick's Theory – the human cell is limited in the number of times it can divide (approx 50 times, after which they simply stop dividing and die)  DNA Repair Mechanisms – there are 3: base excision, nucleotide excision, mismatch repair Oxidation:  Free Radical Theory - damage increases w/ age b/c more free radicals are generated in aging cells, de
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