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Lecture 5

PSY100 Lecture 5.docx

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Alison Luby

PSY100 Lecture #5 Feb 13, 2012 Memory Overview . Paradox and fallibility of memory . Three systems of memory:  Sensory memory  Short-term memory  Long-term memory . Three stages of memory . Biology of memory . False memory The Paradox of Memory . What is memory?  The nervous system’s capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge . Feats of memory are linked to autism sometimes The Fallibility of Memory . Fall prey to suggestive memory techniques (to recall certain memories in a certain way) . Memory illusion: compelling memory that never existed (a bunch of terms in relation to “sweet” but sweet was never in the list of words) The Reconstructive Nature of Memory . Memory is actively being reconstructed (an example is how we experience certain memories as 3 rd person at that point we construct what the features of the memory are and look at that) Attention . What we attend to will get into the next memory system, short-term memory . Selective attention: Select one sensory channel; ignore/minimize others (Involves RAS and the basal forebrain) . Filter theory of attention: We screen incoming information, only letting in the most important . Change blindness: Failure to notice large changes in environments H.M. . Portions of hippocampus surgically removed . Anything before surgery was fine, but afterwards, no memory was remembered . Mirror tracing . Working memory was still intact Three Memory Systems . Span and Duration differences in the different systems Sensory Memory Iconic memory = seeing, echoic memory = hearing . You have information available but you start forgetting the letters as soon as you say a few letters . You have to be able to report it before forgetting it Short-term memory = working memory . 5-30 seconds max (still longer than sensory memory) . Must rehearse information or … . Decay – 18 seconds before it fades . Interference – retroactive interference (retroactive inhibition) = new info disrupting old info - Proactive interference = old info disrupting new info . Memory span – 7 + or -2 (5-9 items) but recent research says it might be as little as 4 . Chunking – organizing information into meaningful groupings . Larger chunk is to improve short-term . Rehearsal – mentally repeating info to keep “alive” in short term . Maintenance rehearsal – repeating out loud/in head . Elaborative rehearsal – linking info meaningfully to self or what self knows . Levels-of-processing model of memory – the more it . Visual encoding(just looking at info) . Phonological encoding (Read it, sound it out, etc.) . Semantic encoding (Giving it meaning) From Shallow to Deep (Depth of Processing) V-S Long-term memory . Can potentially store facts/experiences/skills permanently . Primacy vs. Recency Effect . Serial position effect . Can be divided into three different systems: Semantic memory: Memory of common knowledge Episodic memory: Memory of self; unique to owner Procedural memory (skill/muscle memory): Memory of skills/experience . Can group these three systems into two “blankets”: . 1 blanket: Explicit memory – the process of when you try to remember something (we are aware of trying to remember it) . Declarative memory – Declare memory that you know the memory (retrieved from explicit memory) . Semantic and episodic memories are types of explicit memory nd . 2 blanket: Implicit memory – Unconscious memories it does not require conscious attention . No awareness of it and cannot put into words (tying your shoes, classical conditioning, solving a puzzle faster than done in the past are examples) . Procedural memory is part of implicit memory . Priming is when recently used ideas come to mind and influence thoughts, judgments, or behaviours . Spreading activation from one node to another . Long term memory split into explicit (semantic and episodic) and implicit (procedural, priming, conditioning, habituation) memory Three Stages of Memory . Linked to the process of a computer . Three stages are encoding, stored, and then retrieved Encoding . Mnemonics (strategy to enhance recall) . Pegword method uses rhyming . Me
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