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Lecture 7

PSY100 Lecture 7.docx

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Alison Luby

PSY100 Lecture #7 March 5, 2012 Human Development . Predictable range of ages for progression of human physical development . Genetic component, but culture plays a role . Prenatal period (prior to birth); period inside the womb . Zygote divides forming a blastocyst (ball of identical cells /w no specific function) . Blastocyst start getting specific features at which time it becomes an embryo . Second month becomes fetus (period after all major organs are established and physical maturation is the primary change) . More developed (taste buds, etc.) . We gain many neurons in the brain, some of which we don’t use which is then, due to synaptic pruning, preserves needed neurons and drops the rest . Embryonic stage is a critical period (growth must occur or it will never grow); teratogens can halt this period (any kind of threat from environment – gets into the placenta – that causes birth defect) . Agents include drugs (+ smoking), radiation, viruses/bacteria, alcohol . As a result Fetal alcohol syndrome can occur . Teratogens can affect physical features of a baby (size, behaviour, intelligence, etc.) . Infants born with immature visual system (20 feet distance for baby is = to 300 feet for us), detects movement + large objects and loves faces and eyes, experience size constancy, do not have depth perception . Act upon sounds and prefers sweet smell and flower . In first week: recognize mother’s smell, food eaten by mother when in womb, preference for novel stimuli, gaze longer at face-like pattern rather than a similar non face-like pattern . In first few weeks/months after birth, they have reflexes (goes away once they can control motor skills) . Rooting (turning head and opening mouth in direction of touch on cheek) . Sucking (sucking in response to touch on lips) . Grasping (curling fingers around object) . Piaget: . Assimilation – infants are taking new information and fit it into an already existing schema . Accommodation – Change or create schemas to fit in new information . These schemas lead to 4 periods of cognitive development: . Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years) which is everything a child learns is by using senses and motor abilities . Beginning cannot make mental representations (Out of sight out of mind) . At about 9 months, get object permanence (even if out of view, still exists) . Preoperational Stage (2 – 7 years) when makes mental representations in symbolic thought . Cannot think operationally (not knowing reaction to action) . Can group/match/pair concrete elements (e.g. colour, shape, etc.) . Egocentrism (cannot take another person’s perspective) . Lack understanding of conservation (understanding tha
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