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Lecture 8

PSY100 Lecture 8.docx

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Alison Luby

PSY100 Lecture #8 March 12, 2012 Social Psychology . The study of how people influence other people (behaviour, beliefs and attitudes) Self-Schemas . Frameworks we have when thinking about ourselves (memories, beliefs, and generalizations) . Help us understand the world Functions of this are: . Reflect what we care about . Guide our perception, attention, and memories . Influence our impressions of others The Self and Culture . Individualistic cultures . Autonomy and self-reliance . Western cultures (ex. USA, Australia, Great Britain, Canada, and the Netherlands) . Independent self-concepts (ex. Emotions you feel – happy/shy) . Collectivistic cultures . Value social harmony and cooperation . Eastern cultures (ex. Venezuela, Columbia, Pakistan, Peru, Taiwan, and China) . Have interdependent self-concepts (ex. Social standing – son/student) Cultural Conceptions of Self . Independent view of self when you are separated from everyone around you . Interdependent view of self when you overlap over everyone around you . Regardless of how opposite these views are, these are simply a gradient of conceptions of self The Self . Self-awareness . Thinking about self (our deeds, what we know, etc.) . This leads people to act in line with our values and beliefs . Frontal lobes . Self-esteem . The evaluation of thoughts from self-awareness . Many ways of making high self-esteem . “Better-than-average” effect . Evaluates oneself better than average . Self-serving bias . Crediting yourself for success and blame other situations for failures Attributions . Process of assigning causes to behaviour (ex. Crush looks at you and you instill a cause of love) . Answers to “why” a person acted a certain way or why an event occurred . Generating this to understand/predict/control our environments . Types of attribution: . Personal (dispositional) attributions . Explanation that refer to internal/enduring characteristics (personality traits, attitudes, intelligence); ex. he’s a jerk . Situational attributions . Explanation that refer to external/outside influences; ex. didn’t see you or kids screaming in the back . Errors of attribution: . Fundamental attribution error (FAE) . Tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on people’s behaviour . Actor/observer discrepancy . We make FAE for others, but focus on situational influence when making attributions for ourselves . Easterners more likely to take situational elements, but still favour personal over situational information Social Influence . Conformity . People changing behaviour because of real/imagined group influences in line with norms . Social norms are expected standards of conduct . Types of conformity: . Informational social influence (Sherif) . Case of dot of light 15 feet away in dark room . Autokinetic effect (unmoving object looks like it is moving) with the light . Participants judged both alone and in groups the movement of the light . When in group, the people used the group to state an answer (even if they were originally right or originally said something different) . Normative social influence (Asch) . 5 experiment helpers and one real participant . Clear correct answer is in face . Have the helpers respond first . Had the helpers soon respond blatantly wrong . 75% conformed while only 25% stuck to what they believed . When it was private, the participants privately wrote down their answers and almost no one conformed Deindividuation . Low self-awareness where people lose individuality and fail to attend to personal standards . Engage in uncharacteristic behaviour . Can be brought on by feelings of anonymity and lack of individual responsibility (ex. In large crowds) . Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment (1971) . Participants randomly assigned as prisoners/guards . Behaviour was monitored . Roles shaped behaviour and individualiy quickly . Social facilitation . The process by which the presence of others enhances one’s dominant response . Triplett study . Cyclist race faster together than against a clock . Zajonc’s roach maze . Simple maze, cockroach ran faster in the presence (light shone straight path to the goal) . Complex maze, cockroach ran slowly in the presence because prone to make mistakes . Social loafing . The tendency for people to exert less effort when a group pools in for a common goal compared to when individually accountable (ex. Group project) . Others have a relaxing influence Social Facilitation Presence of others  Individual Performance Evaluated  Alertness//Evaluation apprehension/Distraction-conflict  Arousal  Easy task: better or hard task: worse Social Loafing Presence of others  Individual performance is NOT evaluated  No evaluation apprehension  Relaxation  Easy Task: worse or Hard Task: better Groupthink . Emphasis on group agreement at the expense of critical thinking and sound decision making . Ex. Challenger explosion . We should do this attitude ended up lacking sound decision causing the explosion . Symptoms: . Illusion of group invulnerability . Illusion of group’s unanimity . Unquestioned belief in moral correctness . Conformity pressure . Stereotyping of the out-group (the minority thinking something is wrong are stereotyped) . Self-censorship (shut up even if wrong) . Mindguards (stifle disagreement, self-appointed individuals) . Treatments: . Encourage active dissent . Have independent experts on hand Obedience . Following instructions from an authority figure . Stanley Milgram . Milgram’s study: Basic procedure . Teacher and learner . Learner strapped into electric chair . Learner is a helper (teacher gets a notice of the shock) . Teacher goes into other room with experimenter . Teacher asks questions . Learner receives shock for incorrect answers . Learner protests more as shock increases . No force used by experimenter . 65% out of 40 subjects went on to the end whereas it was predicted less than 1% would go to the end Attitudes and Persuasion . Attitude is a learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affec
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