Class Notes (836,293)
Canada (509,749)
Psychology (3,518)
PSY100H1 (1,627)
Lecture 8

PSY100 Lecture 8.docx

10 Pages
44 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Alison Luby
Semester
Winter

Description
PSY100 Lecture #8 March 12, 2012 Social Psychology . The study of how people influence other people (behaviour, beliefs and attitudes) Self-Schemas . Frameworks we have when thinking about ourselves (memories, beliefs, and generalizations) . Help us understand the world Functions of this are: . Reflect what we care about . Guide our perception, attention, and memories . Influence our impressions of others The Self and Culture . Individualistic cultures . Autonomy and self-reliance . Western cultures (ex. USA, Australia, Great Britain, Canada, and the Netherlands) . Independent self-concepts (ex. Emotions you feel – happy/shy) . Collectivistic cultures . Value social harmony and cooperation . Eastern cultures (ex. Venezuela, Columbia, Pakistan, Peru, Taiwan, and China) . Have interdependent self-concepts (ex. Social standing – son/student) Cultural Conceptions of Self . Independent view of self when you are separated from everyone around you . Interdependent view of self when you overlap over everyone around you . Regardless of how opposite these views are, these are simply a gradient of conceptions of self The Self . Self-awareness . Thinking about self (our deeds, what we know, etc.) . This leads people to act in line with our values and beliefs . Frontal lobes . Self-esteem . The evaluation of thoughts from self-awareness . Many ways of making high self-esteem . “Better-than-average” effect . Evaluates oneself better than average . Self-serving bias . Crediting yourself for success and blame other situations for failures Attributions . Process of assigning causes to behaviour (ex. Crush looks at you and you instill a cause of love) . Answers to “why” a person acted a certain way or why an event occurred . Generating this to understand/predict/control our environments . Types of attribution: . Personal (dispositional) attributions . Explanation that refer to internal/enduring characteristics (personality traits, attitudes, intelligence); ex. he’s a jerk . Situational attributions . Explanation that refer to external/outside influences; ex. didn’t see you or kids screaming in the back . Errors of attribution: . Fundamental attribution error (FAE) . Tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on people’s behaviour . Actor/observer discrepancy . We make FAE for others, but focus on situational influence when making attributions for ourselves . Easterners more likely to take situational elements, but still favour personal over situational information Social Influence . Conformity . People changing behaviour because of real/imagined group influences in line with norms . Social norms are expected standards of conduct . Types of conformity: . Informational social influence (Sherif) . Case of dot of light 15 feet away in dark room . Autokinetic effect (unmoving object looks like it is moving) with the light . Participants judged both alone and in groups the movement of the light . When in group, the people used the group to state an answer (even if they were originally right or originally said something different) . Normative social influence (Asch) . 5 experiment helpers and one real participant . Clear correct answer is in face . Have the helpers respond first . Had the helpers soon respond blatantly wrong . 75% conformed while only 25% stuck to what they believed . When it was private, the participants privately wrote down their answers and almost no one conformed Deindividuation . Low self-awareness where people lose individuality and fail to attend to personal standards . Engage in uncharacteristic behaviour . Can be brought on by feelings of anonymity and lack of individual responsibility (ex. In large crowds) . Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment (1971) . Participants randomly assigned as prisoners/guards . Behaviour was monitored . Roles shaped behaviour and individualiy quickly . Social facilitation . The process by which the presence of others enhances one’s dominant response . Triplett study . Cyclist race faster together than against a clock . Zajonc’s roach maze . Simple maze, cockroach ran faster in the presence (light shone straight path to the goal) . Complex maze, cockroach ran slowly in the presence because prone to make mistakes . Social loafing . The tendency for people to exert less effort when a group pools in for a common goal compared to when individually accountable (ex. Group project) . Others have a relaxing influence Social Facilitation Presence of others  Individual Performance Evaluated  Alertness//Evaluation apprehension/Distraction-conflict  Arousal  Easy task: better or hard task: worse Social Loafing Presence of others  Individual performance is NOT evaluated  No evaluation apprehension  Relaxation  Easy Task: worse or Hard Task: better Groupthink . Emphasis on group agreement at the expense of critical thinking and sound decision making . Ex. Challenger explosion . We should do this attitude ended up lacking sound decision causing the explosion . Symptoms: . Illusion of group invulnerability . Illusion of group’s unanimity . Unquestioned belief in moral correctness . Conformity pressure . Stereotyping of the out-group (the minority thinking something is wrong are stereotyped) . Self-censorship (shut up even if wrong) . Mindguards (stifle disagreement, self-appointed individuals) . Treatments: . Encourage active dissent . Have independent experts on hand Obedience . Following instructions from an authority figure . Stanley Milgram . Milgram’s study: Basic procedure . Teacher and learner . Learner strapped into electric chair . Learner is a helper (teacher gets a notice of the shock) . Teacher goes into other room with experimenter . Teacher asks questions . Learner receives shock for incorrect answers . Learner protests more as shock increases . No force used by experimenter . 65% out of 40 subjects went on to the end whereas it was predicted less than 1% would go to the end Attitudes and Persuasion . Attitude is a learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affec
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit