Class Notes (807,216)
Canada (492,664)
Psychology (3,452)
PSY100H1 (1,603)

Chapter 8

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter Eight: Thinking and Intelligence How does the mind represent information? cognition: mental activity such as thinking or representing information two basic types of representations analogical & symbolic; both correspond to images and words + form basis of human thought, intelligence, and the ability to solve everyday life's complex problems analogical representations: a mental representation that has some of the physical characteristics of an object; it is analogous to the object + ie: maps which correspond to graphical layouts, family trees which depict relationships between relatives symbolic representation: an abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object or an idea ie: word violin stands for musical instrument not correspondences between what it looks or sounds like Mental Images areAnalogical Representations: visual imagery associated with activity in visual perception-related areas of the brain (primary visual cortex) mental image is not perfectly accurate; corresponds generally to the physical object it represents symbolic representations can lead to errors since people can represent only a limited range of knowledge analogically and thus use memory shortcuts unconsciously. Concepts are symbolic representations: symbolic representations consist of words, which can represent abstract ideas in a succinct verbal form + ie: picturing a lemon doesn't tell you what to do or how one tastes like categorization is grouping things based on shared properties + reduces the amount of knowledge one must hold in memory and is therefore an efficient way of thinking concept: a mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or relations around common themes + includes subtypes and/or individual items + can consist of mental representations of a relation between representations or of a quality or dimension, such as brightness or width + allows people to organize mental representations around a common theme a concept ensures that people do not have to store every instance of an object, a relation, or a quality or dimension individually. Instead, people store an abstract representation based on the properties that particular items/ideas share defining attribute model: the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of the category + ie: dictionary defines a bachelor as a male who has not worried concept's defining attributes would be male & unmarried + model suggests that membership within a category is on an all-or-none basis but in reality, people often make exceptions in their categorizations, allowing members into grtoups even if they do not have all the attributes or excluding them even if they have all the attributes + suggests that all of a given category's attributes are equally salient in terms of defining that category; boundaries between categories are fuzzier prototype model: an approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that within each category, some members are more representative than others+ allows flexibility in the representation of concepts a particular prototype can be chosen for different reasons. Exemplar model: information stored about the members of a category is used to determine category membership + any concept has no single best representation instead, all exemplars of category members form the concept a person's representation of dog is made up of all the dogs the person have encountered in their life. + assumes that through experience people form a fuzzy representation of a concept because there is no single representation of any concept Schemas organize useful information about environments: schemas enables people to interact with the complex realities of their daily environments + helps to perceive, organize, and process information people can employ schemas because + common situations have consistent attributes + people have specific roles within situational contexts schemas sometimes have unintended consequences reinforcing sexist/racist beliefs ie: gender roles is a type of schema that operates at the unconscious level people follow them without unconsciously knowing they are doing so + stereotypes + ie: women were seen as inferior gender to play in the orchestra so when they were being rated for auditions, they performed behind the curtain. Scrips dictate appropriate behaviors;; what people view as appropriate is shaped by culture + relational schemas influence what people expect from others in their social interactions schemas and scripts that children will learn will likely affect the
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.