Class Notes (806,449)
Canada (492,253)
Psychology (3,452)
PSY100H1 (1,603)

Psychology notes - developmental psychology (Dolderman)

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Developmental Psychology November-22-11 11:09 AM Developmental psychology - Biology vs. culture, naturevs. nurture - Given that they'realways intertwined,how can we know whetherwhere is such a thing as "innate" human nature and whatthat would look like? Babies - Prenataland infant development progressin highly predictable waysand are largely the result of genetic programming - Of course even prenataland infant development are affected by environmental factors ○ Ex. Teratogens like alcohol,viruses, drugs… can cause abnormal development in the womb;many chemicals pervasive in the environment are now found in fetuses ○ Ex. Stress, the mother's emotional state ---> birth weight, cognitive and physical developmentof the baby ○ Ex. After birth, treat boys and girls differently… - Brain development(myelination,formation of connection between neurons) is also dependenton proper environmental stimulation, nutrition… The role of the environment - Some examples of children growing up in extreme circumstanceshave profoundlydeepened our understanding of the role of the environmentin humandevelopment ○ Ex. Studies of childrengrowingup in Romanian and other orphanages, and other situations of neglect,very little social contact….. Very horrible environments - Feral children- grown up raised by animals - behave exactly like wild animalsthat raised them, they can never reach the level of emotional and speech responses that normalhumans are like ○ Extremecases like these show us that being humanis, like pretty much everythingwe've learned about, more like a skill than an innate ability;it's somethingwe learn throughpractice, bathedin language, cultural practicesand affection - The importance of human contact ○ A key theme in developmental psych ○ Who we are dependson an extraordinarydegree on the humancontact we have throughout our lives, from learningto languageto developinga sense of emotional security, to adoptingbeliefs, habits…. ○ The central part of this process is the formationof attachment Attachment - The bond that develops between the caregiverand child, the emotional connection - It's like an emotional memory, laying the foundationfor our emotional systems, our basic sense of security and trust in others - Babies are designed to form attachments,and elicit attachment forming behavioursfrom adults ○ Ex. Holding out arms, crying… ○ Adults respondalmostautomatically Infantsare social beings - Even very young infantshave highly interactive relationships ○ Ex. Emotional attunement: infantsas young as 10 weeks get extremelyupset when their mothers stop showing any facial expressionsof emotion - The implicationsof this are huge!! ○ Ex. Maternal depressionin first two months - insecureattachment, poor emotion regulation,learned helplessness,even depressionlater in life (akin to early trauma) - By 8 months,infants of unresponsive mothersare developing uncaring emotions One place where behaviourismbreaksdown - Some very common parenting wisdom is to reward the good,punish/ignorethe bad so it extinguishes - But this doesn't work in infants. Letting them cry it out, leaving them alone during tantrums, trying to avoid making them whiney - these strategies backfire,creating a child who feels scared, alone, unlovedand powerless - Parent'scomfort and soothing is transmitted through touching to the kid Harlow'smonkeys Harlow'smonkeys - They raised 60 rhesus monkeys away from their mothers,6-12 hours after birth, nursed with bottles, and showed that these monkeys grew up healthy, but a curious observation was made….. ○ "duringthe course of these studies we noticed that the lab raised babies showedstrong attachment to the cloth pads,diapers whichwere
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.