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Psychology notes - learning (Dolderman)

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Learning October-11-11 11:14 AM Learning - Psychologists began to focus only on observable aspects of human experience - focus on behaviour in the 1900's ○ Ex. Dogs salivate before seeing meat powder - they learn how to predict when the meat powder is coming, so they have an unconditioned response/unconditionedstimulus - Natural associations Higher-order conditioning - A neutral stimulus can become a conditionedstimulus by being paired with an already established condition stimulus Learning to like - Objects have been associated in the past with positive feelings - where sentimental feelings come from Classical conditioning in real life - Conditioningplays a big role in our emotional responses to objects, people, symbols, events, and places - … advertisers pull our strings all the time by associating their productswith images that we associate with desire, cool, sex, power, excitement, etc. ○ People like looking at attractive people (advertisements) - Focus on associations between stimuli, target is largely passive Pavlov's legacy - Did the classical conditioningof teaching the dog to salivate when the bell is ringing even if there is no meat present - Classical conditioningneeds to have unconditionedstimulus an also conditioned stimulus for it to work Watson and the rise of behaviourism - Thought that the conditionedreflex was a model that would account for a wide variety of phenomena, even emotions - Studied babies, and identified three unconditionedemotional responses ○ Fear - being suddenly dropped,or a loud sound ○ Rage - being physically restrained ○ Love - He believed that all other complex emotional experiences were CR's, build on the
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