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Psychology notes - memory (Dolderman)

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Memory October-18-11 11:10 AM Craik and Lockhart - Long term memory storage is based on meaning, we do not file our memories under some sort of code system, like old library card stacks. Instead, we store memories based on meaningfulassociations - The levels of processing principle ○ The levels of processing principle states that the ease with which we can retrieve a memory dependson the number and types of associations that we form with that memory  Superficial processing - simply repeatingthe material that you are trying to memorize  Deeper processing - processing of meaning Why is more easier to remember than less? - Think neural nets... Number of excitatory signals... enhanced communication with repeated activation Retrieval cues provide access to long term storage - Retrieval cues increase the accessibility of elated neural nets, which is why recognition is easier than recall - The encoding specificity principle states that any stimulus encoded with an experience can become a trigger Context dependent memory - The manner in which you study can affect your memory for information ○ Ex. Place = retrieval cues  Place characteristics like sound, visual cues, room size, odours, etc. all get encoded with the material you're remembering  Also… listening to tunes, having the TV on, lying on the couch, drinking coffee... - Even state dependentmemory effects have been found (ex. Be careful when hiding your paycheque while you're drunk) Sensory input sensory memory short-term memory long-term memory Attention and memory - Attentionis the process that moves information from the sensory store to short-term memory - Spotlight of attention Sensory memory - A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information - Information that is not quickly passed to short-term memory is gone forever!!! - Sensory memory is brief - Iconic memory was demonstratedin Sperling's classic experiment (exposure = 1/20 of a second!!) and lasts about 1/3 second - Echoic memory (lasts about 2 seconds… "sure I was listening, you said XXX…") - Iconic and echoic memory systems may allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream stream Inattentional blindness - What we don't shine the spotlight of attentionon, we may not even see, and so not store in memory (very well) Short-term memory - A limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of informationfor brief periods; it is also used to hold informationretrieved from long-term memory for temporary use (20-30s) - Is like a workbench with approximately seven items on it. When a new item is put on the bench, another one falls off (regardless of size though such as a letter, word, or phrase) - Chunking ○ Chunk - meaningfulunit of information which may be composed of smaller units Transfer from STM to LTM - For information to be remembered,it needs to be transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory -
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