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Chapter 8 - Part I.doc

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How do we represent knowledge? • representations are all over the place • a mental representation • Cognitive Psychology: Types of Mental Representation • analogical representations: the mental image shares some of the actual features of our memory • Symbolic representation: they do not share characteristics with the subject Analogical Representations • we are all able to construct mental images of items • you can image and bring a mental image of the space • our mental images are not the same as the real subject all the time but they do help • you can manipulate these mental images - you can think about how you can rearrange furniture • e.g. “mirror image of letter” study • the further the image is rotated from upright it takes longer How are these representations organized? a lot of the knowledge isn’t necessarily a mental image but rather in words • • How is knowledge organized? • categorization: • concepts: the categories that we form • we can also group it together to form larger groups Semantic Network Example • each item is associated with the other • these basic level categories are really important • they are the ones that come to mind easily • we use them every day in conversation • the things we use most often Organization of Concepts • Defining attribute model: a rule based category • we use lists of attributes to categorize things as belonging to one group or another • Problems: • there are some attributes that may not fit so we make exceptions • we have some characteristics that seem to be much more important than others some concepts / items are much more easily categorized as a member of that category • • Prototype model: they are more based on resemblance • how closely do they resemble the prototype? • we have prototypes i.e. our best example • it helps explain why some examples are better than others • Problem: • unclear as to where these prototypes come from\ • exemplar model: we use all the examples in that category to compare to our new entry we are trying to categorize the new item becomes part of our exemplar model • • we c
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