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Lecture 7

Psychology Lecture 7

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY100 - Social Psychology Part II Escara Janes  Implicit and Explicit prejudice : attitudes that we are not consciously aware of and automatically formed over time  Implicit – not consciously aware of  Explicit prejudice – attitudes that we can self-report  The Shooter Task: huge influx in implicit prejudice  Are these people racist?  1999 – 4 police officer shot him down – social psychologists wanted to research it – in the words of the police officers (the book) – clear description – man fit the description of a serial rapist – just standing there  officers brought to trial – black community angry – are they just racist?  Shooter task – implicit measure of prejudice: participants have the choice to shoot or not to shoot when they see a person (holding guns or wallets)  The amount of bias you show vs. armed black targets is not predicted by how prejudice you are – predicted by knowledge/awareness of those stereotypes  Ingroups vs. outgroups  Ingroups – any social group you’re a member of  Outgroup – everybody else (us vs. them)  Ingroup favouritism: prefer members of ingroup, if divided into 2 groups randomly – you still favourite your group vs. other group  Doesn’t mean your hostile to members of an outgroup  Ingroup fav. – happens automatically without reason  Outgroup hostility – competing with other members  members of outgroup – all the same; ingroups – see variation and individuals  Different reasons: more familiar with ingroup, know everyone’s indiv. traits and characteristics, focus on differences between indiv.  Outgroup – their just different  Ways to reduce prejudice? – increasing contact between members of diff. racial groups  Study: went to summer camp – 2 diff. groups on opposite sides of the lake – no existing friendship  Phase 1: formed friends, learned other groups existence – did many competitions – got really nasty and insulting towards other groups  Created prejudice and hostility – see if they could get this to go away through phase 2  Phase 2: still fighting, contact not enough  give them shared superordinate goals – had to work together to get some type of award – required 2 groups to come and work together  Cooperation reduced hostility and reduced prejudice Social influence:  Influence we have on other people and influence they have on us  Empty gym – running on treadmill – perform better with people around you or alone, other people are around us – we run longer and faster  Why does the presence of others help our performance and hurt/hinder our performance – social facilitation: presence of others increases arousal – lead to better performance on certain tasks and can hinder performance on others  Arousal facilitates (helps) performance of accessible, dominant behaviours: simple, well learned, highly practiced behaviours  Arousal inhibits (hinders) performance of less accessible, non-dominant behaviours: complex, new, unpracticed  Social loafing: people don’t work as hard in groups vs. when their alone  Effort reduced
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