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Lecture 14

Lecture 14 (October 30th, 2012)

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 14 (October 30 , 2012) th Cannon-­‐Bard  Theory:     The  physiological  response  and  subjective  experience  of  emotio▯n  happen  independently  and   simultaneously.     Schachter’s  Two-­‐Factor  Theory:     Both  our  physiological  response  and  cognitive  appraisal  of  t▯he  situation  determines  our   emotional  experience.  They  add  cognition  to  this  formula.  So▯  we  have  our  event,  then  we  have   our  emotional  expression  and  physiological  response,  but  along  with  that,  we  have  that   cognitive  appraisal  of  “What  is  going  on?  Why  is  my  heart  raci▯ng?  Why  are  all  these  things   going  on?”  You  have  this  reaction  to  your  environment,  and  then  both  our  physiological   response  and  cognitive  appraisal  work  together  to  give  us  our  emoti▯onal  experience.     There  was  a  famous  study  with  Schachter  and  Singer  in  1962.     They  injected  participants  with  adrenaline  or  a  placebo.  Adrenali▯ne  is  going  to  create  arousal.   They  were  told  that  they’d  expect  a  reaction  to  the  drug,  that  it  will  lead  to  an  increase  in   arousal  or  that  it  would  have  no  effect  whatsoever.  They  were  alo▯ne  in  the  lab  with  a   confederate  (someone  in  the  lab  that  the  participant  believe  is  ▯just  another  participant  but  it  is   actually  a  person  who  is  part  of  the  experiment).  The  confederate  ▯was  told  to  believe  in   different  ways.  He  did  it  in  either  euphoric  ways  or  was  very  an▯gry,  while  they  were  giving   surveys  as  a  part  of  the  experiment.  The  surveys  were  quite  infuria▯ting,  so  we  had  this  super-­‐ angry  guy  or  happy  guy  with  the  participants  who  were  given  an  adr▯enaline  shot  and  were  told   to  expect  something  to  happen.       So  the  dependent  variable  was  how  did  the  participants  behave?  Wha▯t  mood  did  they  report   being  in?     The  results  were  that  informed  participants  (those  told  what  the  e▯ffects  of  the  adrenaline  shot   would  be)  weren’t  so  much  influenced  by  the  behavior  of  the  confederate  that  was  w▯ith  them.   So  our  informed  participants  who  know  they  can  expect  some  aro▯usal  don’t  behave  as   euphorically  as  our  uninformed  participants.  The  angry  behavior▯  with  the  uninformed   participants  were  influenced  by  the  angry  confederate  though.     An  implication  of  this  theory  is  that  we  can  misattribute  the  source  of  our  physiological   response.  This  is  a  misattribution  of  arousal.     For  example,  with  a  lion,  instead  of  being  affair,  you  can  fall  in  love  with  the  lion.     Attraction  or  Fear?  Dutton  and  Aron,  1974.     They  were  approached  by  an  attractive  researcher  on  a  long,  scary  bridge  or  a  very  sturdy  not-­‐ at-­‐all  scary  bridge.  You’re  approached  by  an  attractive  surveyor.  Those  who  were  interviewed   on  the  scarier  bridge  were  more  likely  to  call  the  interviewer  a▯nd  ask  her  out  on  a  date.       The  explanation  is  that  they  are  misattributing  the  feeling  they  have  on  the  scary  bridge  as   attraction  because  of  the  surveyor.     Human  Development:     Developmental  psychology:  focuses  on  the  physiological,  cognitive,  and  social  changes  that   occur  in  individuals  across  the  lifespan.     Topics  we  will  cover  are:   • Attachment,   • Cognitive  Development,   • Social  ad  Identity  Development,   • Adulthood  and  Aging.     Present  at  Birth:     What  kind  of  abilities  do  we  have  at  birth?     For  most  infants,  we  come  into  the  world  with  five  functioning  sentences:   • Sight,   • Smell,   • Sound,   • Taste,   • Touch     They  are  there  in  limited  ways  that  focuses  that  infant  on  mom  an▯d  on  milk.     Infants  have  taste  so  they  prefer  the  taste  of  sweet  hours  after  bir▯th.  Their  vision  is  also  limited   from  a  few  centimeters,  just  enough  to  see  the  face  of  your  caregiver  and  feel  attachment.▯     Reflexes:   • Grasping,   • Rooting,   • Sucking     These  are  all  there  for  survival  purposes.  If  you  give  your  baby  y▯our  finger  it  will  grab  on  to  your   finger,  that  comes  from  our  ancestors  where  monkeys  have  to  grab  their  m▯other  so  they  won’t   lose  them.     What  the  rooting  reflex  is  you  brush  the  cheek  and  the  baby  opens  its  mouth  to  suck  on  a   nipple.     Attachment:     You  form  an  attachment  bond  between  the  infant  and  the  carve  giver.▯     It  is  adaptive.  It  encourages  proximity  between  child  and  mother▯.     Oxytocin  is  released  during  sexual  encounters,  thought  to  produce  attachment  between  sexual   partners.  It  is  known  as  the  cuddle  hormone.  It  has  a  lot  to  do  with  attachment  and  buildi▯ng   attachment  bonds.  We  talk  about  the  intimate  bond  between  two  peo▯ple  that  is  persistent   across  time  and  situations.     Imprinting  is  something  that  happens  with  animal  species  too.  During  the  first  18  ho▯urs  of  a   duckling’s  life,  it  will  learn  to  follow  an  adult  in  this  environment.  For  exa▯mple,  if  the  only  adult   is  a  human,  they  ducks  will  follow  him,  and  after  this  critical  period,  they  will  learn  to  just  follow   around  that  adult  researcher.     Critical  periods  are  this  idea  that  there  are  certain  biologi▯cal  time  points  so  you  can  pick  up  a   certain  ability  and  if  the  time  passes,  you  can’t  pick  it  up  anymore.     Humans  also  have  these  critical  periods  for  learning,  and  now  it's  been  relaxed  a  lot,  so  now  we   talk  about  things  not  being  critical  periods  but  sensitive  per▯iods.  It  is  easier  for  us  to  pick  certain   skills  at  a  certain  time.  For  example,  it  is  easier  to  learn  a  language  when  we’re  younger.  It  is   much  easier  to  do  at  an  earlier  time.     Harlow's  Study:  Attachment  in  Monkeys     Harlow  looked  at  attachment  in  monkeys.     Harlow  created  fake  moms  for  the  little  monkeys.  So  one  mother  w▯as  just  a  wire  cage  who  had   the  milk,  so  that  was  the  only  source
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