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Lecture 13

Lecture 13 (October 25th, 2012)

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Lecture 13 (October 25 , 2012) th Motivation and Emotions What are the factors that motivate behavuir? What motivates you to eat? What motivates you to study? What motivates you to ask someone out on a date? Why do we have emotions and how do they influence our behavior? Needs and Drives: Drives, like hunger, are psychological states that encourage behaviors (like eating) that satisfy needs (for example, food). They encourage behavior by increasing arousal. Arousal is a general term that can encompass many things: changes to our autonomic nervous system, etc. whatever motivates behavior and helps us do what we want to be satisfied. As we get hungrier, our arousal gets higher, and we get motivated to get our food. This is Maslows hierarchy, which is very popular and seems to sum up things very well. At the top of the pyramid are: Self-fulfillment needs: o Self-actualization: achieving ones full potential, including creative activities, Psychological needs: o Esteem Needs: prestige and feelings of accomplishment o Belongingness and love needs: intimate relationships, friends Basic needs: o Safety needs: security, safety, o Physiological needs: food, water, warmth, rest In order for the needs at the top to be fulfilled, the needs at the bottom first need to be fulfilled. It is not only our internal drives that guide our behavior. We eat when a food tastes good! Incentives: External stimuli (as opposed to internal drives) that motivate behaviors. For example, the food tastes good, so we eat though we are not hungry. Eating: What do we choose to eat? What determines what were eating? Cultural beliefs and personal experience are really important in determining what kind of foods we eat. We like sweet things, we avoid bitter things - because lots of poisons and things we don't eat are bitter. There are also differences in what we eat when: we eat eggs for breakfast but we dont eat spaghetti in the morning. Theres no reason not to. It just has to do with cultural norms. Religious observances largely determines diet too (pork or cow). When Do We Eat? We all tend to get hungry roughly at the same times. So why is lunch at 12:00 PM? We just associated that time with lunch time. You go to school and that is lunch time when you were in school. For example, youd get hungry at 10:15 in school, because that was recess and then you become conditioned to eat at 10:15. We also will eat when were hungry. In Canadian culture, lunch is generally from noon to two-o-clock; this is a standard idea of what lunch is. Lunch is a very different meal in cultures and it tends to be a much larger meal and businesses will shut down so people will go to eat lunch. Why Do We Eat? There are different signals that we get in our brain. It has a lot more to do with your brain compared to whats going on in your stomach. The world of the hypothalamus in eating: the hypothalamus is important for these drives we have like eating and thirst. The experimenters damage different parts of the rats brain. Damage to the Ventromedial region (VMH) causes the rats to lose the part of their brain that tells them they are full. The lateral (LH) getting damage will have its brain forget to tell the rat that they are angry. Therefore, damage to the hypothalamus produces dramatic changes in eating and body weight. So the rats either eat and eat and eat and they never get the signal to stop eating. This is hyperphagia. The other rats dont get the signal to them that they need to eat. They have aphagia. There are lots of other theories regarding the internal signals responsible for hunger and satiation. Leptin is a hormone released from fat which travels to the hypothalamus and inhibits eating behavior. Ghrelin is a hormone from the stomach that surges before eating and decreases after eating. Glucostatic theory: glucose levels in the bloodstream. Lipostatic theory: set-point for body fat. o Every individual has some set level of body fat that their body needs, and if they deviate from that set point, they either need to eat more or eat less. How Much Do We Eat? When there is a greater variety of food, we tend to eat more of it. So the idea is that there is a sensory specific society. We get tired of the same thing so we can go on and eat something else. This is an evolutionary thing. Portion sizes have greatly increased over the years and obesity has increased too, of course. You get crazy large portions of food.
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