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Lecture 17

Lecture 17 (November 8th, 2012)

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Lecture 17 (November 8 , 2012) th Impression Formation: Stereotypes Recall stereotype threat: occurs when people are worried about confirming the negative stereotypes of their group. It tends to actually lead to decreased performance. Why? o Physiological stress: could affect your prefrontal memory o Distraction: now youre thinking about the stereotype, youre worrying, so you arent able to focus on the task at hand. o Effortful suppression of negative thoughts and emotions: trying to suppress negative thoughts or emotions. All of these decrease our short term memory. Stereotypes are inherently this neutral thing but there can be both positive and negative stereotypes about groups. Positive stereotypes arent necessarily good things either, but we will focus on negative stereotypes, because they lead to prejudice. Prejudice: negative judgments and attitudes toward a person based on their group membership, which can lead to discrimination. Discrimination: Inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people based on their group membership. Stereotypes --> Cognitions/Beliefs Prejudice --> Feelings/Attitudes Discrimination --> Behavior Implicit and Explicit Prejudice: The Shooter Task (Josh Correll, 2002) Diallo was a man from Guinea who was shot in the 90s who was shot by the police, because they thought he had a gun instead of the wallet that he had on him. A group of plain clothes white police officers passed Diallo and they thought he was a push-in robber (a burglar who pretends to be a guest and pushes himself into other peoples houses), another thought of him as a rapist. In this task, participants view various scenes and whenever they see a person, they must instantly decide whether to shoot or not shoot. Their goal is to shoot people who have guns and to not shoot people who do not have guns (wallets, etc.). There are two types of errors you can make: shooting the unarmed, or not shooting an armed man. People more often shoot unarmed black targets than unarmed white targets. Theres also the bias in them not shooting white targets who are armed. Performance predicted not by levels of racial prejudice, but by awareness/knowledge of cultural stereotypes (regardless of whether they are personally endorsed or not). Similar studies (Greenwald, 2003) have shown that police officers are less likely to shoot unarmed people and equally likely to shoot black and white targets. You will show more bias towards black targets on this task just by how aware you are of black men in this society; just the knowledge that this stereotype exists is predictive of the results of this shooter task. Ingroups vs. Outgroups: Ingroups ("us) and outgroups (them). Outgroup homogeneity effect: tendency to see members of the outgroup as being less varied than ingroup members. We are more familiar with our ingroup members and because were so familiar with them, we see them as individuals, while with the outgroup, we tend to not know them as well. With ingroup members, your membership is the same, so you look at other things. With outgroup people, you just don't have to look at them as individuals since they arent in your group to begin with. Ingroup favoritism: the tendency for people to evaluate favorably and privilege members of the ingroup even more than members of thee outgroup. Even when the groups are new, temporary, and completely arbitrary. Just because you like your ingroup does not mean you are hostile to your outgroup. You need more for hostility with your outgroup to occur. For example, competing with members of the other group. We just aren't familiar with these group members, so if we start getting familiar with them, all of these things may disappear. The Robbers Cave Experiment (Sherif, 1961): He got this group of boys who were from good families, well-adjusted young men (all white), and they went to this summer camp and there were two different groups of boys, and for the first week or so, they didnt even know another group existed over the lake. So in Phase 1, they both first got to know their group separately, and then they found out that there was this other group across the lake, and they began to have competitions with one another. They got really nasty and you found out that
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