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Lecture 16

Lecture 16 (November 6th, 2012)

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 16 (November 6 , 2012) th Social  Psychology:  Part  I     Social  psychology  is  the  scientific  study  of  the  effects  of  socia▯l  and  cognitive  processes  on  the   way  individuals  perceive,  influence,  and  relate  to  others.     Topics  we  will  cover  are:   • Attitudes  and  Persuasion   • Impression  formation   o Our  use  of  stereotypes  as  well  as  prejudice   • Social  influence,   o Conformity  and  obedience.     Attitudes:     Attitudes  are  our  evaluations  of  objects,  events,  or  ideas.  It  is  central  to  social  psychology.       We  can  have  attitudes  towards  absolutely  everything.  An  attitude  is  ▯simply  our  positive  or   negative  evaluation  of  a  particular  object.     Attitudes  are  formed  in  many  ways:   • Mere  exposure  effect:  how  often  we’ve  been  exposed  to  things,  we  have  attitudes   towards  things  that  are  merely  familiar  even  though  we’re  not  consciously  aware  of   it.   o Experimenters  have  a  female  student  appear  in  a  small  classroom.▯  She  would   appear  in  a  few  classes  of  the  semester,  and  they  asked  students  of  the   classes  at  the  end  of  the  semester  and  showed  them  photos  of  the▯se  female   students  and  asked  how  much  they  liked  or  disliked  a  person.  The   experimenters  found  out  that  they  liked  the  person  they  had  happened  to   see  more  often  throughout  the  semester,  so  just  being  exposed  to  something   can  help  you  form  attitudes  about  them.   • Conditioning  effects:  you  can  form  an  association  with  something,  and  form  an   attitude  towards  them.   o How  operant  condition  can  influence  our  ideas  about  things:  “Have  a  Coke,   have  a  smile!”     • Social  influence:  how  our  friends/parents/teachers  think  about  things  all  influence▯   how  we  feel  about  certain  things.  We  might  decide  that  we  like  something  because   our  mom  likes  it.   • Direct  experience:  our  attitudes  can  be  formed  with  our  direct  experi▯ence  from   objects.     Implicit  attitudes  tend  to  reflect  more  automatic,  less  controllable  aspects  of  evaluations.   • They  predict  automatic,  spontaneous  behavior.     Explicit  attitudes  tend  to  reflect  some  more  conscious,  controllable  aspects  of  evaluations.     • They  predict  controlled,  deliberate  behaviors.     These  different  types  of  attitudes  are  implicit  in  predicting  cert▯ain  kinds  of  behaviors.   • Implicit  attitudes  predict  behaviors  that  rise  spontaneously  and▯  automatically:  how   close  you  decide  to  sit  beside  that  person  could  do  with  the  race,  gender,  etc.  of  that   person.   • Explicit  attitudes  are  better  predicted  by  what  it  is  we  actually  s▯ay,  with  deliberate   controlled  types  of  behavior.     These  attitudes  may  not  always  agree.  You  may  have  the  exact  same  object/person,  and  your   implicit/explicit  attitude  with  that  person  may  not  line-­‐up  together.  You  may  have  a  positive   implicit  attitude  but  a  negative  explicit  attitude.     Cognitive  Dissonance:     Cognitive  Dissonance:  an  uncomfortable  mental  state  that  arises  when  conflicts  occur  bet▯ween   attitudes  or  between  attitudes  and  behavior.     You  have  an  aversive  physiological  reaction.     Festinger  and  Carlsmith,  1959:   • Participants  performed  a  boring  knob-­‐turning  task.  Then  they  were  asked  to   motivate  another  participant.  They  were  paid  either  $1  or  $20  to  lie  ▯about  the   pleasurableness  of  the  task.  Participants  who  were  paid  only  $1  to  mislead  a  fellow   participant  experienced  cognitive  dissonance,  which  led  them  to  alter  their  attitudes   about  how  pleasurable  the  task  had  been.       Post-­‐decisional  dissonance:  Tension  that  occurs  when  someone  has  to  choose  between   multiple  attractive  options.  Once  our  bachelor  has  chosen  between  h▯is  two  options,  this  means   that  he  has  not  chosen  the  alternatives  of  that  other  person.       Justification  of  effort:  People  who  suffer  through  severe  initiation  rituals  end  up  valuing  their   group  memberships  more  compared  to  those  group  members  accepted▯  without  initiation   (Aronson  and  Mills,  1959).   • They  studied  all  female  participants.  They  were  joining  this  group▯  that  was  to  discuss   sexual  things,  and  the  experimenter  saying  that  we  want  you  to  feel  comfortable  so   these  are  words  and  scenarios  that  I  want  you  to  say  out  loud  to  me▯  (they  had  this   list  of  dirty  words  that  they  had  to  say),  and  those  who  said  okay  and  did  it,  ended   up  valuing  the  group  more.   • The  group  turned  out  to  suck.  They  were  talking  about  the  mating  habit▯s  of  frogs   and  no  one  should  have  really  valued  that  group,  but  if  they  had  gone  through  this   severe  initiation  ritual,  they  ended  up  rating  the  group  more  highly  than  those  who   were  able  to  join  the  group  no  problem.     Persuasion:     A  big  part  of  attitudes  literature  is  persuasion.     Persuasion  refers  to  the  active  and  conscious  effort  to  change  attitudes  throug▯h  the   transmission  of  a  message.     Whenever  we  are  talking  about  persuasion,  we  must  think  of  three  things:   • We  have  the  source  of  our  persuasive  message,   • We  have  the  content  of  the  message,   • We  have  the  receiver  of  the  message.     There  are  different  variables  associated  with  the  key  characteristic▯s  of  this  persuasive  message.     The  Elaboration  Likelihood  Model:  Two  Routes  to  Persuasion     The  ELM  is  one  of  the  most  important  theories  of  persuasion.  Ther▯e  are  two  different  processes   that  people  can  go  through  to  be  persuaded  by  a  message  or  not.     First,  there  is  the  default  group,  which  is  the  peripheral  route:  When  people  attend  to   relatively  simple,  superficial  cues  related  to  the  communication,  such  as  the  length  of  the   message  or  the  attractiveness  of  the  source.
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