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Lecture 1 - Experimental Methods and Notation

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Alison Luby

PSY201H1F Stats Lecture 1 Statistics: a set of mathematical Intro to Stats procedures for organizing, summarizing, and interpreting info Stereotype threat (not tested on) Purpose of stats: Organize&summarize info, Claude steele (1997) worry about confirming communicate results to others (set of standardized techniques used in scientific neg stereotype attached to ur group May produce anxiety, neg feelings interfere w community), answer qs outlined by studys performance hypothesis, make conclusions from results More severe when ppl highly identify w the Usually start research w Hypothesis: domain their task is in but ONLY if you know General q about the relationship btwn 2 about this stereotype variables for a grp of ppl Virginia woolf Women: Told they cant b A researcher interested in relation btwn intellectual __ and __ for a population of _____ (ALL Paradoxically, stereotypes endure because bhvr members of that pop) ends up confirming stereotype person tried to Do __ and __ differ in terms of ___? (ALL avoid vicious cycle __ and __) Failure is upsetting + continued experiences Population: Entire grp we wish to study, disidentification and devaluing the subject Set of indivs of interest in a particular study To reduce s.t.: Try to reframe the idea of the Parameters: Population statistics test: Typically want to know parameter Dif btwn saying I am good at math & It is values important to me to be good at math Calculate parameter from Stereotype lift occurs when told good measurements of every indiv in pop stereotype Rarely have chance to study entire become at ease category or grp of interest so use Being told theres no dif can reduce s.t. vs sample (to find avg result): not telling about the dif at all (because ppl Set in indivs from pop of interest, still think it exists) intended to represent pop in research Reduce s.t. by reminding ppl they r study individuals and capable human beings Problems: (individuation) Want to be entirely random to avoid Prime w gender words & non-gender words biases ask personal questions & unrelated But if sample unrepresentative questionsmath test: unreliable & unrelateable data Priming w gender words: lowers women Sampling error: Stats try to minimize scores, this so can generalize result to answer Even if you prime w gender words in qs about WHOLE pop making individuated groups you can still get inferences equivalent results btwn genders so Statistics: Sample characteristics individuation works Typically MEASURE numerical stats If part of more than one group w from sample instead of parameter stereotypes: values from entire pop Not reminded of stereotypescore is Usually start w a hypothesis: Trying to study specific characteristics unaffected Reminded of neg & posAbove effects (Variables): characteristics or conditions still occur that change or have dif values for dif indivs Women focusing on their self-complexity & Dont need to do study on things that social grps reduces s.t., focusing on sex dont vary & dont have movement identity increases it Have to collect Data: Measurements or observations Ex. Focus on similarities btwn women & men Score or Raw Score: Single measurement Self-affirmation that youre an Data set: Collection of measurements or important human being w morals and observations self-worth & self-integrity Goal of stats: Help organize & interpret the Learning about s.t. helps as well results, do so thru descriptive & inferential Learn anxiety & worrying just means statistical methods you care Descriptive stats: Stat procedures to summarize, organize & simplify data
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