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Sept 13 Psy201 Lecture Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Daniela Palombo

Sept 13 BRING ICLICKER A. Categories of statistical tools - Descriptive statistics o Tools we use to describe data in our study o Ex. frequencies, mean, correlation, standard deviation o Chapters 2-7 - Inferential statistics o Tools we use to help us make judgments about the population based on what we found in our study o Ex. t-test o Chapters 8-14 (+)  8-12 are foundations for understanding  13-15 (+) are commonly used statistical tests B. Preview of key terms - Ex. Group 1 smoke joint. Group 2 smokes placebo joint. Recall a list of words and record how many words they remember. o Independent variable: marijuana high o Dependent variable: memory o Is the dependent variable, memory score a continuous variable or a discrete variable?  Measuring number of words recalled and you can’t remember half a word; you can only remember 5 words or 6 words, not 5 ½ words. o On what scale of measurement is the dependent variable, memory score, measured? Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio?  Ratio o What scale of measurement best describes independent variable, marijuana high? Nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio?  Nominal; high or not o Which option below best describes the sample? The people who participated in our study, the people who agreed to participate but then didn’t complete the study, everyone who was present at Hot Box Café, All possible people who could participate, each individual person’s score  People who participated in our study o Which option below best describes a statistic? The mean memory score for participants in the THC group, the mean memory score for everyone who could participate in placebo group, the number of ppl in our sample, all of the above, a and b only.  The mean memory score for participants in the THC group; the parameter the same thing for the entire population. o Which option below describes the population? Participants in our experiment, people who live in Canada, people in the Hot Box Café, Marijuana users, All people ever born  Depends on researcher’s goals. Usually not quite as broad as E. Typically ‘people in general’ C. Review of research methods - Methods of knowing o Authority  Fact advocated by person of distinction  Accept something as fact because it’s advocated by a person in a position of distinction  Ex. electrons, interior light in cars o Rationalism  Reasoning to arrive at conclusion  Ex. How many people do you need in a room for the probability that 2 of those ppl have the same birthday? 23, 78, 183, 225, 365  23 people!  Not good for distinguishing 2 possibilities not distinguish which one is more probable o Intuition  Sudden insight, free of reason; usually used when rational thought can not be used  People can only consider so many variables (4 variables)  Ex. healthier lunch, shawarma or chicken Caesar salad?, political candidates o Scientific Method  Reason & intuition to create hypotheses  Objective evaluation! D. Types of studies - Naturalistic observation o Least formal o Ex. How much do children hit each other? - Correlation study o More formal than naturalistic observation; looking for relationships between variables o Ex. Is there a relationship between smoking marijuana and memory performance? - Experiment o Formal, establishes cause and effect o Ex. Talking on cell while driving; observe > correlate > test F. The scientific method - Identifying the problem/question o Observe, read, talk, research (PsychLIT or PsycINFO) o Translate into testable hypotheses  Hypothesis: what you think should happen in an experiment; needs to be able to test  Theory: a set of statements designed to explain a set of results - Operational definition: strict definition of variable o Ex. Weight - Design of an experiment o Population: the entire set o Sample: subset of the population (participants!) o Variable: property or characteristic of some event, object, person; may have different values under different conditions - Experimental group: simulated driving while chatting on hands-free -> measurement of driving ability - Control group: simulated driving
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