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Lecture 1 - Intro and Chapters 1 and 2 - September 13.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kristie Dukewich

September 13, 2012. Lecture 1 – Intro to Statistics and Chapters 1 + 2 Descriptive Statistics:  Tools we use to describe data in our study  E.g., frequencies, mean, correlation, standard deviation  Chapters 2-7 Inferential Statistics:  Tools we use to help us make judgments about the population based on what we found in our study  E.g., t-test  Chapters 8-14+ o 8-12 are foundations for understanding o 13-15+ are commonly used statistical tests Marijuana Example  People from Hot Box Café selected to participate in study as to whether smoking weed affects memory  Groups randomly selected, each given a joint; one with weed, one with a placebo  Independent variable: variable unaffected, static, unaffected o The high marijuana gives you; the marijuana high  Dependent variable: the affected part of the study (or presumed affected) o In this case, a participant’s memory  Memory in this case is a discrete variable (vs. continuous variable)  Memory score (e.g., number of words remembered) is measured on a nominal scale  Marijuana high measured on a nominal scale as well  The sample refers to the people who participated in the study  Parameter refers to the base point for the entire population applicable to the study  A statistic refers to the results of the study and only based on the participants within it Review of Research Methods/Methods of Knowing Authority  Fact advocated by person of distinction o Ex. Electrons o Ex. Interior light in cars Rationalism  Reasoning to arrive at a conclusion  Ex. How many people do you need in a room for the probability that two of those people have the same birthday? o 23, 78, 183, 225, 365 o Answer: 23  Not good for distinguishing two possibilities Intuition  Sudden insight, free of reason o Ex. Healthier lunch, shawarma or chicken ceaser salad o Ex. Political candidates Scientific Method  Reason and intuition  hypotheses  Objective evaluation! Types of Studies  Naturalistic observation o Observing your sample group in a completely natural setting o Least formal o Ex. How much do children hit each other?  Correlation Study o More formal, looking for relationships and connections between variables o Ex. Is there a relationship between smoking marijuana and memory performance?  Experiment o Formal, establishes cause and effect o Manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect o Ex. Talking on cell while driving: Observe  Correlate  Test The Scientific Method  Identifying the problem/question o What question you want to study: find this out through observation, research, read, talk o Translate into testable hypothesis o Hypothesis: what you think should happen in the experiment o Theory: a set of statements designed to explain a set of results  Designing and performing an experiment o Operational Definition: strict definition of variable  Ex.
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