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PSY Terminology

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Dan Dolderman

Exam Terminology PSY100 Psychology Evolves in a Socio-Historical Context (Pg. 16-25, 406-414, 548-556, 562-564) Introspection – The systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts (Wilhelm Wundt) Structuralism – The psychological approach based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken into its basic underlying components (Edward Titchener) Functionalism – The psychological approach concerned with the adaptive function of the mind and behaviour (William James) • Charles Darwin’s natural selection theory played a significant role in the development of functionalism Behaviourism – The psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behaviour (John Watson) • Charles Darwin’s natural selection theory played a significant role in the development of functionalism • B.F. Skinner is associated Humanism – The psychological approach that emphasizes human values • Carl Rogers is associated • Abraham Maslow is associated • Humanists believe other theories to be dehumanizing Stream of Consciousness – The continuous series of one’s ever-changing thoughts (William James) Gestalt Theory – The theory that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements (Max Wertheimer) CellAssembly – Particular neurons wire themselves together, forming new memories and learning new things, as we age (Donald Hebb) Milgram’s Experiments – Studies obedience to authority predicting only a small fraction of participants would continue obeying authority, contrary to results (Stanley Milgram) The Shooter Task – Aprogram created to test participant bias in a life or death situation motivated by Amadou Diallo’s case (Joshua Correll) Unconscious – The mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness Psychoanalysis – The method developed by Sigmund Freud attempting to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness to reveal conflict Cognitive Psychology – The study of how people think, learn, and remember (George Miller) Cognitive Neuroscience – The study of the neural mechanisms that underlie thought, learning, and memory Social Psychology – The study of group dynamics in relation to psychological processes (Kurt Lewin) Sexual Response Cycle – The predictable pattern of physical and physiological responses during sexual activity (excitement -> plateau -> orgasm -> resolution phases) (Masters and Johnson) Sexual Strategies Theory – The evolutionary theory that suggests men and women rank the importance of qualities in their relationship partners differently because of gender-specific adaptive problems (David Buss) Stereotypes – Cognitive schemas that allow for easy, fast processing of information about people based on their group memberships Exam Terminology PSY100 Prejudice – Occurs when the attitude associated with a stereotype is negative Discrimination – The inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people based solely on their group membership Self-Fulfilling Prophecy – People’s tendency to behave in ways that confirm their own or others’expectations Ingroup Favouritism – People’s tendency to privilege ingroup members more than outgroup members Obedience toAuthority – The powerful social norm that people should obey those with legitimate authority Psychology is an Empirical Science I (Pg. 35-77) Scientific Method – The systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why HOMER – Hypothesize, Operationalize, Measure, Evaluate, Replicate Phenomena – Things that can be observed Variables – Things that can be measured and can vary Empirical Questions – Questions that can be answered by observing and measuring aspects of the world Theory – The model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes future predictions Hypothesis – The prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct • Revising hypotheses once support has been found as research is a cyclical process Research – The process of careful and systematic data collection Data – Objective observations or measurements Replication – Repetition of an experiment to confirm results Descriptive/Observational Study – Study that involves observing and noting behaviour, either with or without observer intervention, to analyze it objectively Naturalistic Observation – Observers do not change or alter ongoing behaviour • More so used by anthropologists Kinsey Scale – Aseven-point scale that shows the many gradations of sexuality (Alfred Kinsey) • 0 is exclusively heterosexual while 6 is exclusively homosexual Participant Observation – Observers are actively involved in the situation Longitudinal Study – Measures the same participants multiple times • Flaws are that it is expensive and takes a lot of time Cross-Sectional Study – Compares participants in different groups at the same time • Confounds are very possible in this type of study Correlational Study – Examines how variables are naturally related in the real world Observer Bias – Areactivity where systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations Independent Variable – The measure that is manipulated by the experiment to examine its impact on the dependent variable Exam Terminology PSY100 Dependent Variable – The measure that is affected by manipulation of the independent variable Experimenter Expectancy Effect –Areactivity where the observed subject’s behaviour changes due to observer bias Directionality Problem – When researchers find a relationship between two variables in a correlational study and cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other Third Variable Problem – When the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable and therefore cannot be confident that another unmeasured variable is not the cause of differences in the dependent variable Confound –Anything that impacts a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between a study’s experimental conditions • Can be prevented by using random assignment and a random sample Experimental Study – Astudy that tests causal hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables Control/Comparison Group – The participants in a study that receive no intervention or an intervention different from the one being studied Experimental/Treatment Group – The participants in a study that receive the intervention being studied Population – Everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in Sample –Asubset of a population Selection Bias – When participants in different groups in an experiment differ systematically Random Assignment – Participants have equal chance of assignment to any level of the independent variable in an experiment Four Canons of Science Determinism – The universe is orderly and all events have meaningful, systematic causes • Theories - Statements about the causal relation between two or more variables • Variables - Acharacteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals • If everything happened in a completely random fashion we wouldn’t be able to theorize how anything works Empiricism – The best way of figuring out orderly principles is by collecting data or making observations • Francis Bacon tells the parable of a horse’s teeth • Men debate for several days over the estimated value of teeth in a horse’s mouth while one man suggests they could simply count it for themselves Parsimony – The simplest explanations are the best (Occam’s Razor) • “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication,” – Leonardo da Vinci Testability – Scientific theories should be testable (confirmable or disconfirmable) using currently available research techniques • Falsifiability – It must be possible, in principle, to make an observation that would show the hypothesis/theory to be false • Operational Definitions – Definitions of theoretical constructs that are stated in terms of concrete, observable procedures • There can be physiological measures, behavioural measures, and self-reported measures Exam Terminology PSY100 Behaviour is Determined by Multiple Factors I (Pg. 81-124) Behaviour – Caused by heredity, biology, environment, and culture Epigenics – Changes in gene expression that are due to non-genetic influences Chromosomes – Structures within the cell body that are made up of genes Gene – The unit of heredity that determines a particular characteristic in an organism Dominant Gene – Agene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present Recessive Gene –Agene that is expressed only when matched with a similar gene from the other parent Genotype – The genetic constitution determined at the moment of conception Phenotype – Observable physical characteristics that result from both genetic and environmental influences Phenylketonuria (PKU) – Adisorder in which infants are unable to break down phenylalanine, an enzyme contained in dairy and aspartame Polygenic Characteristic – The characteristic that a population displays a range of variability for Industrial Melanism – Amutation in which moths and butterflies tend to have darker colors in areas of the world heavy with soot or smog Sickle-Cell Disease – Amutation that alters the bloodstream’s processing of oxygen causing red blood cells to assume the distinctive sickle shape Zygote – Afertilized cell Monozygotic Twins – Twin siblings who result from one zygote splitting in two and therefore share the same genes Dizygotic Twins – Twin siblings who result from two separately fertilized eggs Heredity – The genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring Heritability –Astatistical estimate of the variation, caused by differences in heredity, in a trait within a population Central Nervous System (CNS) – The brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – All nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous system including the somatic and autonomic nervous systems Somatosensory – All the sensory systems associated with the body (touch, proprioception, internal organs, etc) Somatic Nervous System –APNS component that transmits sensory signals to the CNS via nerves Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – APNS component that regulates the body’s internal environment by stimulating glands and maintaining internal organs such as the heart, gall bladder, and stomach Sympathetic Division of ANS – Prepares the body for action (E.g., fight-or-flight response) Parasympathetic Division of ANS – Returns the body to its resting state Neurons – The basic unit of the nervous system -Operate through electrical impulses which communicate with other neurons through chemical signals -Receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system -Three types: sensory, motor, and inter Exam Terminology PSY100 Sensory Neurons –Afferent neurons which detect information from the physical world and pass that information along to the brain Motor Neurons – Efferent neurons which direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement • Primary Lateral Sclerosis – Occurs because the brain takes time to remap itself to acknowledge that the nerves aren’t receiving information Interneurons – Neurons which communicate only with other neurons, typically within a specific brain region Dendrites – Branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons Cell Body –Where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and processed in the neuron Axon –Along narrow outgrowth of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons Terminal Buttons – Small nodules at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron to the synapse Synapse/Synaptic Cleft – The site for chemical communication between neurons, which contains extracellular fluid Myelin Sheath – Afatty material, made up of glial cells, that insulates the axon and allows for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon Nodes of Ranvier – Small gaps of exposed axon, between myelin sheath segments, where action potentials are transmitted Resting Membrane Potential – The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active • The ratio of negative to positive ions is greater inside the neuron than outside • Polarization – Changing the differential electrical charge inside and outside of a neuron • There are sodium ions and potassium ions • Ion Channels – Specialized pores at the nodes of Ranvier • Each channel matches a specific type of ion (sodium to sodium ion channel, but not to potassium ion channel) • Agating mechanism controls this flow • More potassium gets in the neuron than out it due to selective permeability • Sodium-Potassium Pump – Pump worked to increase potassium and decrease sodium in the neuron Action Potential/Neural Firing – The neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons All-or-none Principle – The principle whereby a neuron fires with the same potency each time Neurotransmitter –Achemical substance that transmits signals from one neuron to another • Can be destroyed by • Reuptake -Aneurotransmitter is taken back into the pre-synaptic terminal buttons, stopping its activity • Enzyme Deactivation – An enzyme destroys the transmitter substance in the synaptic cleft • Auto-Reception – Autoreceptors monitor and limit how much neurotransmitter has been released into the synapse Exam Terminology PSY100 • Are stored in vesicles inside the terminal buttons Receptors – Specialized protein molecules on the postsynaptic membrane that neurotransmitters bind to after crossing the synaptic cleft Agonist –Any drug that enhances the actions of a specific neurotransmitter (E.g., cocaine, methamphetamine) Antagonist –Any drug that inhibits the action of a specific neurotransmitter (E.g., beta-blockers, botulinum toxin) Acetylcholine (ACh) – The neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles and is involved in mental processes such as learning, sleeping, dreaming, and memory (LSDM) • Botox inhibits the release ofAch; paralyzing muscles Epinephrine – The neurotransmitter responsible for bursts of energy known as adrenaline rushes Norepinephrine – The neurotransmitter involved in states of arousal and awareness (AAA) Serotonin –Amonoamine neurotransmitter important for dreaming, impulse control, and emotional states (DICES) Dopamine –Amonoamine neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward, and motor control (MRAM) Parkinson’s Disease (PD) – Aneurological disorder that seems to be caused by dopamine depletion, marked by muscular rigidity, tremors, and difficulty initiating voluntary action GABA(gamma-aminobutyric acid) – The primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system Glutamate – The primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system Endorphins – Neurotransmitters involved in reward and natural pain reduction (RAN) Substance P –Aneurotransmitter involved in pain perception Broca’sArea • Important for the production of language • Located in the left frontal region of the brain Brain Stem • Important for basic survival programs (breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm) • Located in the bottom of the brain • Consists of the mid-brain, the medulla oblongata, and the pons • Includes reticular formation – Anetwork of neurons that project into the cerebral cortex and affect general alertness Corpus Callosum – Connects the left and right hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication Cerebellum • Important for coordinated movement and balance • Located at the back of the brain stem • Bottom node damage causes head tilt, balance problems, a loss of smooth compensation of eye position for head movement • Ridge damage causes walking impairment Exam Terminology PSY100 • Lobe damage causes a loss of limb coordination (E.g. reaching smoothly for a pencil) • Studies indicate it is involved in making plans, remembering events, using language, and experiencing emotion Basal Ganglia • Important for the initiation of planned movement • System of subcortical structures • Damage can impair the learning of movements and of habits such as looking at cars before you cross streets • Nucleus accumbens is important for experiencing reward (dopamine neurons in the nucleus accumbens are activated) • Dysfunctional caudate nucleus may lead to OCD Hypothalamus • Important for temperature regulation, emotion, sexual behaviour, and motivation (TESM) • Located below the thalamus • Small structure considered the brain’s master regulatory structure • Receives input from everywhere in the body and brain and projects its influence to everywhere in the body and brain • Involved in many basic drives including thirst, hunger, aggression, and lust Thalamus • Receives almost all incoming sensory information before it reaches the cortex • Sense of smell avoids the thalamus and goes straight to the cortex • Thalamus shuts the gate on incoming sensations while the brain rests during sleep Hippocampus – Abrain structure important for the formation of certain types of memory Amygdala –Abrain structure vital in learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information Cerebral Cortex – The outer layer of brain tissue which forms the convoluted surface of the brain • Compared to other mammals’brains humans have more folds and grooves on the outer surface Frontal Lobes – The region at the front of the cerebral cortex concerned with planning and movement Prefrontal Cortex –Aregion of the frontal lobes, especially prominent in humans, important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behaviour • Makes up approximately 30% of the brain • Consider the story of Phineas Gage who had a spike explode into his prefrontal cortex • It is said he became extremely mean and aggressive without reason after recovery Occipital Lobes – Regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain important for vision • At the intersection of the occipital and temporal lobes is the fusiform face area Temporal Lobes – The lower region of the cerebral cortex important for processing auditory information and for memory • At the intersection of the occipital and temporal lobes is the fusiform face area Parietal Lobes – Regions of the cerebral cortex, in front of the occipital lobes and behind the frontal lobes, important for the sense of touch and of the spatial layout of an environment Exam Terminology PSY100 Endocrine System – Acommunication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts, behaviours, and actions Hormones – Chemical substances, typically released from endocrine glands, that travel through the bloodstream to reach and influence targeted tissues Gonads – The main endocrine glands involved in sexual behaviour: in males, the testes; in females, the ovaries Pituitary Gland – The gland located at the base of the hypothalamus that sends hormonal signals controlling the release of hormones from endocrine glands Behaviour is Determined by Multiple Factors I (Pg. 439-456) (Pg. 629-674) Health Psychology – The field of psychological science concerned with events that affect physical well-being Well-being – Apositive state that includes striving for optimal health and life satisfaction Biopsychosocial Model – Amodel of health that integrates the effects of biological, behavioural, and social factors on health and illness Placebo Effect – Adrug or treatment unrelated to the particular problem of the person who receives it, that may make the recipient feel better because the person believes that it is effective • Acommon placebo effect occurs in osteoarthritis knee surgery groups • Everyone wakes up with a scar, and there was no difference between fake and real surgery condition in patients • Agood example of the Biopsychosocial model Stress –Apattern of behavioural, psychological, and physiological responses to events that match or exceed an organism’s abilities to respond Stressor –An environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism Love – There are three types: lust (sexual drive), attraction (motivation), and attachment (Oxytocin, long-term) Coping Response – Aresponse an organism makes to avoid, escape from, or minimize an aversive stimulus Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)Axis – The biological system responsible for the stress response Fight-or-flight Response – The physiological preparedness of animals to deal with danger Tend-and-befriend Response – Females’tendency to protect and care for their offspring and form social alliances rather than fight or flee in response to threat Oxytocin –Ahormone important for mothers in bonding with newborns Lymphocytes – Specialized while blood cells known as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells that make up the immune system Immune System – The body’s mechanism for dealing with invading micro-organisms, such as allergens, bacteria, and viruses GeneralAdaptation Syndrome – Aconsistent pattern of responses to stress that consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) – The study of the response of the immune system to psychological variables Type Abehaviour pattern – Abehaviour pattern characterized by competitiveness, achievement orientation, aggressiveness, hostility, restlessness, inability to relax, and impatience with others Type B behaviour pattern – Abehaviour pattern characterized by relaxed, noncompetitive, easygoing, and accommodating behaviour Exam Terminology PSY100 Allostatic Load Theory of Illness – When people are continually stressed, they are unable to return to bodily states that characterize normal stress levels PrimaryAppraisal – Part of the coping process that involves making decisions about whether a stimulus is stress, benign, or irrelevant Secondary Appraisal – Part of the coping process that involves evaluating options and choosing coping behaviours Emotion-focused Coping –Apassive coping type in which people try to prevent having an emotional response to a stressor Problem-focused Coping –An active coping type in which people take direct steps to confront or minimize a stressor Stress-Resistant/Hardiness – Having the ability to adapt to life changes by viewing events constructively Resiliency – Having the ability to cope with stress and return to normal states of functioning Social Support Tangible Support – Providing support by taking on responsibilities Informational Support – Providing support by offering advice Esteem Support – Providing support by building confidence Emotional Support – Providing support through empathizing, listening, and physical comfort The Buffering Hypothesis – The theory that although emotional support is intangible, receiving it helps one cope with stressors Mental Disorders Psychopathology – Disorders of the mind 1. Does the behaviour deviate from cultural norms? 2. Is the behaviour manipulative? 3. Is the behaviour causing problems to the individual? Psychotherapy – Formal psychological treatment involving practitioner to client interactions • Finding the right therapist is important to due reoccurring interactions • Understanding a disorders causes does not necessarily lead to more effective treatments • This means something caused by biological factors is not necessarily best treated with biological therapy • Simple Clinical Interviews are less structured and depend on the therapists’experience • Structured Interviews followed a more scripted outline Comorbidity – The concept that mental disorders commonly overlap one another Etiology – Factors that contribute to the development of a disorder Emil Kraepelin – One of the first researchers to propose a classification system for mental disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1952) – The standard in psychology and psychiatry that first systematically categorized mental disorders Exam Terminology PSY100 Multiaxial System – The system used in the DSM prior to DSM-5 that provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health factors -Axis I: Clinical Disorders (E.g., schizophrenia, childhood disorders, depression) -Axis II: Personality Disorders & Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disorder (E.g., antisocial personality disorder) -Axis III: General Medical Conditions (E.g.,Alzheimer’s, obesity) -Axis IV: Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (E.g., unemployment, divorce, poverty) -Axis V: GlobalAssessment of Functioning (on a scale from 1 to 100) -Axis I-III are grouped together in DSM-5’s new system -The higher the score inAxis V the better Assessment – Examination of a person’s mental state to diagnose possible psychological disorders Diathesis-Stress Model – Proposes a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability couples with a precipitating event Family Systems Model – Views symptoms within an individual indicative of problems within the family Socio-Cultural Model – Views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures Cognitive-Behavioural Approach – Views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive cognitions Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) – The occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual • Some suggest it should be included as a type of post-traumatic stress disorder • Some people fake having DID to get away with crimes Anxiety Disorders -Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger -25% of people will be diagnosed during their lifetime with an anxiety disorder -Common symptoms include autonomic system arousal, anxiety, tenseness, restlessness, and excessive startle response GeneralizedAnxiety Disorder (GAD) – Adiffuse state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event (hyperviligance) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) –An anxiety disorder characterized by frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions -OCD is no longer grouped with anxiety disorders in DSM-5 -OCD can run be biologically passed down -Evidence suggests a dysfunctional caudate nucleus (part of basal ganglia) causes it Panic Disorder – An anxiety disorder characterized by sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror Agoraphobia –An anxiety disorder characterized by fear of being in situations which may be difficult or impossible to escape from Mood Disorders • Can be caused by the cognitive triad (having negative feelings about themselves, their situation, and their future) Exam Terminology PSY100 • Can be caused by life stressors (E.g. interpersonal loss) • Can be caused by genetics, monoamine deficiency, and biological rhythms Major Depression –Amood disorder characterized by severe negative moods or a disinterest in normally pleasurable activities Dysthymia –Amood disorder not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depression Bipolar Disorder – Amood disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania • Possibly enhances the abilities of artists Schizophrenia – Amental disorder characterized by alterations in perceptions, emotions, thoughts, or consciousness Positive Symptoms – Schizophrenic excesses in behaviour • Delusions – False personal beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality • Hallucinations – False sensory perceptions experienced without an external source • Loosening ofAssociations – Speech pattern among schizophrenic patients where thoughts are disorganized or meaningless • Disorganized Behaviour – Acting in strange or unusual ways (odd movement of limbs, odd speech, inappropriate self-care) Negative Symptoms – Schizophrenic deficits in behaviour (isolation, apathy, blunted emotion, slowed speech and movement) Concordance Rates – The percentage of twins who share the same disorder Learned Helplessness Model –Acognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events around them Personality Disorders Borderline Personality Disorder – Apersonality disorder characterized by identity, affective, and impulse control disturbances • Identity – Lack of strong sense of self, fear abandonment, can be very manipulative in their attempts to control relationships • Affect – Profound emotional instability • Impulsivity – Self-mutilation most common, also sexual promiscuity, physical fighting, binge eating, and purging • Can be caused by genetics and serotonin deficiency along with environmental factors such as abuse, trauma, and caregiver relationship Anti-Social Personality Disorder –Apersonality disorder characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse • More common in males • Psychopaths represent the most extreme version of people suffering from APD (often superficially charming and rational, insincere, unsocial, incapable of love, lacking insight, shameless) • Can be caused by low socio-economic status, dysfunctional families, childhood abuse (situational/environmental factors) • Can be caused by lower levels of arousal, lack of fear/anxiety, amygdala abnormalities, frontal lobe deficits • Genetics may be more important for psychopathy than other forms of the disorder Childhood Disorders Exam Terminology PSY100 • Needs to be considered within the context of normal childhood development • Assessment can be challenging Autism/Autism Spectrum Disorder –Adevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted interests • Unaware of others (lack of eye contact, smiling) • Deficits in communication (echolalia, pronoun reversal) • Restricted activities and interests (repetitive play and behaviour, routine changes are upsetting) • Causes are primarily biological; heredity component • Pre-natal/neo-natal events may result in brain dysfunction • Brain dysfunction leads to a over or undergrowth pattern of brain development Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) –A disorder characterized by restless, inattentive, and impulsive behaviours • Biological Factors: Connection between frontal lobe and limbic system, abnormal activation of prefrontal regions, basal ganglia • 30-80% ofADHD diagnosed children show symptoms in adulthood which may lead to academic and employment struggles Asperger’s Syndrome – Aform of autism characterized by deficits in social interaction, without showing the same impairments in linguistic or cognitive development Social Communication Disorder – Adisorder characterized by a persistent difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication that cannot be explained by low cognitive ability • Child’s acquisition and use of spoken and written language is problematic, and responses in conversation are often difficult Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder – Adisorder characterized by severe and recurrent temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to the situation in intensity or duration • Outbursts occur on average at least three times a week for at least a year Multiple Factors III Forming Impressions (pg. 544-547) Nonverbal Behaviour – Facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others Slices of Behaviour – Making accurate judgments based on few seconds of observation (Nalini Ambady & Robert Rosenthal) Gait – How people walk provides information about affective state Attributions – People’s causal explanations for why events occur, made in part by a need for order and predictability Just-World Hypothesis – The belief that we live in a just world and therefore all unjust activities are justifiable Dispositional/Personal/Internal Attributions – Explanations referring to internal characteristics (abilities, traits, moods, effort) Fritz Heider – The originator of attribution theory Exam Terminology PSY100 Situational/External Attributions – Explanations referring to external events (weather, luck, accidents, others’actions) FundamentalAttribution Error – The tendency to overestimate personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behaviour Fritz Heider and Harold Kelley – Described people as intuitive yet systematically biased scientists who try to draw inferences about others and make attributions about events Edward Jones – Originated the idea of fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias) emphasizing that people expect others’behaviours to correspond with their own beliefs and personalities Actor/Observer Discrepancy – People’s tendency to focus on situations rather than their own personal dispositions, while focusing on personal dispositions rather than situations for others (Edward Jones) Models of Personality (pg. 583-593) Personality – The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviours that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances Personality (GordonAllport) – The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought Personality Psychologists – Psychologists who study personality influencing processes and explore the influence of culture, learning, biological factors, and cognitive factors on personality Whole Persons – Qualities that make each person unique Personality Trait – Acharacteristic or dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances Psychodynamic Theory – Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behaviour Instincts – Mental representations arising out of biological or physical need Life Instinct – The desire to satisfy the libidinal urges for pleasure Pleasure Principle – Directs people to seek pleasure and avoid pain Libido – The energy that drives the pleasure principle Topographical Model – Proposes the structure of the mind is divided into three zones of mental awareness (Sigmund Freud) Conscious Level – People are aware of their thoughts (Sigmund Freud) Preconscious Level – Content is not currently in awareness but could be brought to awareness; roughly analogous to long-term memory (Sigmund Freud) Unconscious Level – Material that the mind cannot easily retrieve, containing wishes, desires, and motives, and associated with conflict, anxiety, or pain (Sigmund Freud) Freudian Slip – When unconscious information leaks into consciousness having a person accidently reveal a hidden motive Psychosexual Stage – According to Freud, the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges Oral Stage – Pleasure is sought through the mouth (birth to 18 months old) Anal Stage – Pleasure is sought through bowel control from toilet training (two to three years old) Exam Terminology PSY100 Phallic Stage – Pleasure is sought through the genitals (three to five years old) Oedipus complex – Male children desire an exclusive relationship with their mother and thus view their father as a hostile rival Latency Stage – Libidinal urges are suppressed or channeled into doing schoolwork or building friendships Genital Stage – Adolescents and adults attain mature attitudes about sexuality and adulthood while libidinal urges are centred on the capacity to reproduce and contribute to society Structural Model of Personality – An integrated model of how the mind is organized, consisting of three theoretical structures that vary in degree of consciousness Id – In psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle Superego – In psychodynamic theory, the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct Ego – In psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego Defence Mechanisms – Unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and distress Anna Freud – Studied defence mechanisms and contributed to the understanding of children’s development Reaction Formation - Occurs when a person wards off an uncomfortable thought about the self by embracing the opposite thought Neo-Freudians – Scholars who embrace the unconscious conflict notion while rejecting certain aspects of Freudian thinking Object Relations Theory – The object of attachment is another person, such as the parent or spouse HumanisticApproaches – Approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and belief systems, proposing that people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential Anna Freud – Studied defence mechanisms and contributed to the understanding of children’s development Self-Actualization – Fulfilling potential for personal growth through greater self-understanding Phenomenology – Subjective human experience Abraham Maslow – Believed the desire to become self-actualized is the ultimate and most important human motive (Theory of Motivation) Carl Rogers – Emphasized people’s subjective understandings of their whole lives (person-centred approach) Person-Centred Approach – Emphasizes people’s personal understandings, or phenomenology (Carl Rogers) Fully Functioning Person – Aperson with a developed healthy sense of self-esteem Unconditional Positive Regard – Children are accepted, loved, and prized no matter how they behave Positive Psychology Movement – Psychologists use methods of science to study humanity’s positive aspects such as faith, values, creativity, courage, and hope (Martin Seligman) Subjective Well-Being – Ageneral term for the degree of happiness and satisfaction people feel (Ed Diener) Broaden-and-Build Theory – Positive emotions prompt people to consider novel solutions to their problems, and thus resilient people tend to draw on their positive emotions in dealing with setbacks or negative life experiences Exam Terminology PSY100 Personality Types – Discrete categories based on global personality characteristics Implicit Personality Theory – People’s tendency to assume certain personality characteristics go together, and make predictions about people based on minimal evidence TraitApproach – An approach to studying personality that focuses on the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions, such as sociability, cheerfulness, and aggressiveness FactorAnalysis – Grouping items according to their similarities (Raymond Cattell) Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model of Personality – Extroversion is a superordinate trait made up of sociability, dominance, assertiveness, activity, and liveliness Specific Response Level – The basic structure of the hierarchical model which consists of observed behaviours Habitual Response Level – Repeated observed behaviours on different occasions Superordinate Traits – Introversion/extroversion, emotional stability, and psychoticism Introversion/Extroversion - The extent to which people are shy, reserved, and quiet versus sociable, outgoing, and bold (Carl Jung) Emotional Stability – The extent to which people’s moods and emotions change Neurotic People – Those low in emotional stability Psychoticism - Amix of aggression, impulse control, and empathy Constraint –Aconception of psychoticism which is the extent to which people are restrained or disinhibited Five-Factor Theory - Integrates and invigorates the trait approach by providing a common descriptive framework (valuable organizational structure for the vast number of traits that describe personality) Openness to Experience – The extent to which one is imaginative and independent Conscientiousness – The extent to which one is careful and organized Extroversion – The extent to which one is social and affectionate Agreeableness – The extent to which one is trusting and helpful Neuroticism – The extent to which one is worried and insecure B.F. Skinner – Viewed personality as learned responses to patterns of reinforcement Personal Constructs – People’s understandings of their circu
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