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Lecture 9

PSY210H1F Lecture 9

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University of Toronto St. George
Justin Mc Neil

PSY210H1F L9; Nov 20, 2012 How Much to Pay Them? Sex & Gender Gender & Scientific Careers  How many women are in scientific fields? o Biological science: 52.9% o Chemistry: 33.1% o Computer science: 27.5% o Computer hardware engineers: 19.4% o Chemical engineers 13.1% o Electrical engineers : 7.7% o Mechanical Engineers: 6.7% Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (2007)  Require certain amt of training – women, for whatever reason, might not have enough of something, esp in mathematics Are Men “Better” at Science?  Males on avg paid $4000/yr more – substantial  Harvard President Lawrence Summers: there are more male faculty in math & science due to inherent difs  Rmbr in chem, 1/3 = female o Women are less likely to work the 80+ hrs required to  Did not matter whether the prof in question was male or female hold research jobs at the highest level due to family constraints o Suggests unconscious bias against women in applying to o More high school boys score in the very highest ranges in scientific fields & towards men in applying to scientific standardized tests (3.5+ standard deviations), suggesting fields o Suggests chemistry seems more appropriate for a male inherent difs in ability  Biological dif applicant o Do you agree?  Tells us 2 major kinds of difs w real social effects Dillon, S. (2005). Harvard chief defends his talk on women. New York Times. How Important is Gender?  Gender differences hypothesis Who Gets Hired? o Men & women are dif, and should seek to understand them  127 chem research scientists asked to assess which student to as dif ppl, and trace the dif developmental trajectories of hire as lab manager boys and girls & understand them separately  2 applicants: male & female o Experiences boys & girls receive over time cause them to develop in dissimilar ways o Same CV, gender varied  Who did they hire? o Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus: men & o Should see no difs women different. 30 million copies sold, translated into 40 languages  Moss-Racusin, C. al. (2012)  Core assumption of difference Who Gets Hired? o You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation: men & women constitute different cultures. 4 years on the New York Times bestseller list. Translated into 24 languages  The gender gap btwn women & men is like the divide btwn ppl from dif cultures since have dif communication styless Are Men & Women Different?  Men: Instrumental traits – men get things done o Competence, rationality, assertiveness, courageousness  Women: Expressive traits – women feel things o Warmth, caring, sensitivity, nurturing  Tends be be a grping of male & female traits  “Masculine” traits tend to be positive & more highly valued by society, “feminine” traits negative o Traits considered masculine are rated more important  How do we develop an understanding of “gender”?  Male candidates considered significantly more competent, Gender Stereotyping  Early childhood (2-4 yrs) hireable, and significantly better targets to mentor o Very inflexible stereotypes o Gender, not traits, predicts bhvr o A boy who plays w dolls isn’t a boy – since boys don’t do o Humans share a biological heritage  results in certain things like that bhvrs o Gender role violations just as wrong as moral o This divide is based to some degree on biological reality – violations may be caused by hormone difs  Say boys & girls extremely dif, horrible for a boy to do girl things & vice versa Sex Hormones  Boy hitting a boy, and boy wearing a dress – both  Boys tend to have more androgens equally wrong  Animal research: androgens administered to animals  Middle Childhood increase active play o Increase in gender flexibility: traits can be shared by botho Generalize to humans? If to a lesser degree boys and girls  Niche-picking  Understand gender does not determine bhvr, but o Boys: rough & tumble play, active group games traits associated w gender predict bhvr o Girls: calm & gentle envts, smaller grps (dyads), more  Understand certain traits can be shard by both socially-oriented games genders – certain traits more flexible  Then from there, niche-picking to satiate needs for certain o In-group favoritism kind of play  then grow more & more different  Masculine traits rated high by boys, feminine traits o So maybe Erikson was wrong to believe boys & girls have rated high by girls same developmental trajectory  Believe own grp is superior o Differentiate gender role and moral violations Sex Hormones?  Would rate the boy hitting someone as worse, can  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): adrenal gland produces label it as a moral violation large amounts of androgens  Can label a boy wearing a dress as a social violatin Girls born with “masculinize” genitals that should be punished less (than hitting someone) CAH girls: higher activity levels, prefer “male” toys, prefer o Understand are male or female forever male playmates  Persists in spite of gender socialization Gender Roles Video  By age 4-5: know will never change sex, know girls have long Envt’al Tranmission of Stereotypes hair, say girls & boys don’t exchange clothes or would be  Observational learning: children experience envt, which laughed at, think own gender is best reinforces gender stereotypes  Develop gender role stereotypes around same type as develop o Parents gender identity o Teachers o Say the female doll likes to clean the house, take care of o Peers babies o Media o Say the male doll goes to work   learn how they are supposed to behave, learn boys & girls  Gender can predict or even determine bhvr are supposed to behave in dif ways Where Do Gender Stereotypes Come From? Observational Learning: Parenting  Biology? – real difs btwn men & women inn social roles  Parents create different envts for children o Evolution? o As early as what colour to paint the room when come  Males genetically predisposed towards competition, home from hospital aggression – biological drive to win as many mates  Boys as possible o Given “masculine” toys: trucks (make slam into things),  Female must raise young to adulthood to make sure action figures (make fight one another), video games, etc. genes passed on – evolutionary niche  Taught to play w toys certain way o Hormones? o Encouraged to explore, go outside, be independent  Envt? – adoption of gender role stereotypes  Tend to be supervised less often o Social Pressures? o Rewarded for physical play, told not to express feelings o Modelling  Girls Evolutionary Gender Difs o Given toys that encourage nurturance, attractiveness  Ex. Dolls (groom), makeup, kitchen sets, stuffed  Animal research animals (nurture) o Males oriented towards competing for mates o Taught to express feelings  Males more competitive, active, develop o Encouraged to stay inside, share in activities w sophisticated processes parents  get household experience o Females oriented towards caring for young o Parents respond to daughters’ distress more than o Observed in 97% of mammalian species sons’ distress  Some researchers claim this is generalizable to  Toys encourage dif social experiences humans  Boys encouraged to do things, girls encouraged to express  Masculine-instrumental/feminine-expressive trait themselves emotionally division apparent in most human cultures o Cultures differ in magnitude gender-typing Observational Learning: Peers o Often assumed to be because of biological underpinnings  Strong reinforcement of gender stereotypes o In-group favoritism restricts grp mobility (boys o Adventurous lifestyle playing w girls, etc.)  Prefer friends of own gender Gender Identity o Made fun of if act like the other gender, very intoleran A person’s personal identification w a gender  Boys: rough, active play, large groups, team sports, solve  Personality traits considered masculine/feminine problems thru combat o Masculine & feminine traits do not perfectly predict one  Girls: smaller grps; courteous, polite persuasion, negotiation another – can be high in both, or be low in both  Grps do not mix well  Androgyny: indivs high in masculine, feminine traits o Grps = self-reinforcing o Masculine, androgynous indivs tend to have higher o Girls feel frustrated by rambunctious nature of boys self-esteem  Experience dif social realities  stronger gender stereotypes o Feminine traits not valued as highly, predict low self- esteem due to in-grp favouritism & niche-picking  Studies on avg have shown girls have less self- Observational Learning: Teachers esteem than boys  Schools model “feminine” envt o Valuable ability = sit down & be quiet – easier for girlsow Does Gender Identity Develop? o Poor outcomes for both genders  Social learning theory: children acquire gender identity thru  Boys tend to engage in a lot of disruptive bhvr  modelling, reinforcement garner attention from teachers  problems  Bhvrs later acquire male/female types conforming to gender roles they have not been  Bhvr first, gender links second taught  Girls: taught to be even less autonomous, Cognitive Developmental Theory independent  Self-perceptions become bhvr  Teachers spend more time w boys  Children label themselves as “male”/”female”, act accordingly o Often “low quality” time: addressing disruption  Constructivist view of gender development o Boys tend to not well in school, girls tend to do better o Take this info & adapt it into existing schema  Teachers tend to grp children in terms of gender  Understanding of gender, then of bhvr o Boys tend to do better in segregated than all-boys o Understand we are a gender, then later learn certain schools bhvrs for boys & certain bhvrs for girls o But females tend to do worse due to disruption from males Kohlberg’s Theory of Gender Constancy  Stage 1: Gender Labelling Observational Learning: Media o Children can label their own sex, sex of others correctly  “Boys” shows & “girls” shows o Do not understand that sex is stable o Dif poses, colours, etc.  Stage 2: Gender Stability o Targeted towards boys or girls o Understanding that sex is stable; confusion about  Dif depictions of men & women in shows reinforces gender relation btwn external appearance & sex  Advertising: women as caregivers, men as professionals,  Stage 3: Gender Consistency adventurers o
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