Lecture 2 – Jan 19 2012
Stages of Development- Freud and Piaget
Idea of Stage: In their stages of development , kids try to intelligently make
John Locke (1632-1704)
Development: Empiricist Theory (Environmentalism; all learning is bottom-up),
learning acquire knowledge
-Tabula Rasa (Blank Slate), quantity of experiences that set children and adults
apart (no difference= democracy),
Nativism: You’re born with innate abilities that are hard wired.
Ex. Bi-pedalism. Innate: Capacity is there (potential) just not
Asccociation (Triggering each other, symmetrical relationship; A associated with B):
• Similarity- based on the attention given.
• Contiguity- proximity in time and space and time Ex. Day-Night
• Frequency- how often they are found similar or together
Relevance-depends on the context, similarity isn’t just there, there’s a selection
Problem: Locke couldn’t explain relevance, logical function and structure.
Similarity can be infinitely similar and dissimilar, can’t be coming in from the world,
your mind has to select shared properties and which it will ignore. Mind imposes
order of what is important. Can’t explain relevance and idealization.
Negation: Not; thoughts don’t come in unless exposed. Absence is different from
Why is it that kids can learn things that you haven’t taught them? Language
formation, and sentence structure.
Kids’s first word is : “No” they weren’t taught it. 2
Locke theorizes that development is driven by experiences. Cognitions may drive
development, and mind would therefore drive their own development.
Insight: Fact about development a process driven by experience, for a long time
people had different ideas of development. Development was once seen to happen,
however it brought up the idea that the mind may drive own development. Other
than just growth, huge learning aspect.
Jean Rousseau (1712-1788)
-Overlap with Locke
Development: maturation of meaning making ability, create more meaning,
individual growth of meaning making ability
-During the period of enlightenment; science was used to solve everything.
French Romanticism: making of meaning, based on how we impose order on the
Constructionism: Mind is constructing, imposing an order. Has a huge nativist
Maturational process: capacity of making meaning
Ex Walking: inner timetable that unfolds, physical growth (don’t need height
Meaning making ability naturally unfolds, develops as a capacity of making
meaning. To make sense of their environment. Why are we so concern with making
meaning and schematizing things
-Emphasized Top-down processing (High order breaking information down to more
basic ideas), creativity and arts. Using the nativist approach (we make meaning)
and imposed mind on to the world.
Imagination, emotion, will, all the ways we impose order and make sense of the
world. Making things intelligible.
How is something innate?
• Evolution; exist because of time 3
• Perrenial problem (Innate) fight or flight
• Innate= time = evolution
Problem: In Nativism over emphasizes biological at the expense of the cultural.
Support racist, nazi etc...
1. Some reason for you are who are you are based on culture, history born and
participate within. Hard to explain with Rousseau framework. Tried Racist thing, if
dev. Wasn’t messed up people would turn into French, Aristotle everyone would
turn out male.
2. Who does thing get to be innate? Rousseau’s Answer: God put it there, God is not
a willing participant is any experiment.
Down and out from the world.
Johann von Herder (1744 – 1803)
Overlapped with Rousseau, and was influenced by German Romantic. Romantisms
was deeply a german thing. Meaning making is crucial.
Suspicious of nativism & individualism, Locke and Rousseau assume
development is an individual phenomenon.
Locke and Rousseau, development between Mind-World.
Development: Mind- Mind Connection (Culture), enculturation, socialized into a
Meaning making is largely done by something is history,
1. Language: community and history makes meaning system. Nobody makes a
language the people making meaning in something.
2. Money, we add and give meaning to money. But it really has no inherent
Meaning comes from distributed cognition, culture acts as a meaning system on the
brain. It is similar to networking brains together (mind-mind interaction); working
together and coordinating.
As a result, he claimed that being cultural had the biggest selective advantage