Lecture 6 - Feb. 27 2012
Science is about explaining the fact. Explanation needs causation. And to do so you
need to manipulate variables. Science is providing good evidence to believe
something not prove it.
Bias –find evidence to support thesis.
Things have multpule causes, and we try to isolate for the cause
1. Without theoretical debate you can’t have a good theory. This includes any
experiment in theoretical debate.
2. Experiments changes independent which is dependent on independent
Line of Best Fit allow one to construct infinite numbers of
functions and since you can construct infinite amount of lines,
inductive reasoning (Specific General) is never certain.
Deductive reasoning (General Specific) is good but you
learn nothing new.
Theoretical Debate has 2 Functions:
1. Alternative that we can control (consider theory in theoretical debate)
2. Focus on, which one you’re going to test.
Method of difference” manipulate x to seeif it predicts difference in the variable
Theory , need it before and after
-More control, decrease in ecological validity
-Increase precision = decrease in generalization
-increase in generalization = decrease in precision
Experiments end with discussion not with results because you can’t conclude
anything. You can discuss how your experiment is a reflection of the best
experiment conducted with the result here present to support it but not prove it.
Science doesn’t prove anything.
Arugments therefore involve: Ivy Quach
• Reason of Why
• Everyone will argue based on points
• Why is your alternative the best, between precision and generalizability
• More importance on phenomena, more debate there will be
Experiments conducted with development are extremely difficult
Control Variable (Group Study); requires big numbers of people
• Must make/ have the same influence between both groups ( control and
• Compare both groups
o Ex. Kids watching Sesame Street vs Kids without Sesame street
There is s difference between Proof and Evidence
May have causation, science has bold arguments. Sciences claims that its
experiments are best, and conclude cautiously
Reversal Replication- tight use method of influence