Lecture 7 – Mar. 5 2012
Can’t test real experiment gene-test
-can mainipulate genetic structure
-rely on quasi experimentation (test?); correlational studies?
Ex. Can’t manipulate height , it is plausible to say height effect social statuus
A LOT OF QUASI EXPERIMENTAL EXPERIMENT:
We’ve had separate share of environment and genetics, families share the same
environment. And family studies are best preliminary.
Culture run off on familiar relationship
Evidence – family study not clearly distinguished. Genetic & environmental
Adoption Studies (QUASI EXPERIMENTAL METHODS)
Compare adopted children to biological parents & adoptive parents. The genes are
pulled apart and separated from the environment; this is done with respect to
Genetic contribution to intelligence.
Experiment: Longitudinal Studies conducted on 250 families...
Results: Bio logical relation show more significant and strong correlation than
individual long term env. This introduced a wrinkle in such a clean picture.
Hostile & Antisocial behaviour:
Children measured for higher hostility and anti-socialness show more correlation to
biological parent w/ pyschatric disorder; GENETIC CONTRIBUTION. Child not living
with biological parent would be evidence for genetics
Wrinkle: Adoptive parent looks
at disciplinary style. They found
significant correlation between
biological parent & adoptive
Genes Trait Ivy Quach
(Not complete ) Genes Proto-trait = environment ( Adoptive parent)
The idea here is that genes, genes make/create cranky behaviour, which affects the
parent (environment) causing them to reinforce the biological component. This
creates the reason for correlation between the biological parent and adoptive
This creates a feedback loop. Bio causes behaviour which influences the
environment, the environment drives the bio. ( The parents become causally linked
in a self- organizing system.
Potential confound between biological parent and adoptive.
There are two types of twins (identical/Monozygotic VS fraternal/ Dizygotic)
*The only difference between the two are their genes
Monozygotic - a single egg that splits into two
Dizygotic- 2 individual eggs fertilized
• Provide more correlation between genetics in intelligence;
o Such as: attention, testing, and
o Concentrate more on intelligence.
o Can compare developmental pacing
Not just product similar but also.......... processs
Between Mono vs Di, Mono show more
Wrinkly: In step wise function
Structural & Regulatory Genes
Structural Genes: (DNA, RNA, Ribosomes), they codes for how to make you
Regulatory Genes: (Enzymes, Proteins) they catalyze for metabolism to
occur and turn on & off genes
Most genes are polygenetic in nature (not coded by one gene). They have the
same gene that is influenced in many ways of how they are expressed. Ivy Quach
Similar to a piano keys, they play many notes (with on structure) but different
notes forms a song.
Biology rewires itself, depending on the different stimuli such as when in
desert. Body’s chemistry is altered.
Gene Gene Activity proto-trait environment ( depends on how inter)
Gene activity: regulation of polygenetic genetic structure in a contrextually
You can have influence on development. Behaviour invokes people in
environment, by shaping or moving environment.
Principle of Interactionism
Nature-Nuture drive environment
What does it mean by interaction?
It shows a mechanism of interaction. It implies as evidence increase,
clarity of definition in interaction and evidence increase
How could twin studies be flawed?
• Huge environmental confound
• Parents treat them as same individual
Ex. Parents dress them the same
Ex Share syllable parent, Roger and Ronald, same room, encourage to
Tradition: treating twin as practically the same individual. There is more
concordance, because you treat them the same
Combined Twin + Adoption Studies
This becomes more expensive with fewer numbers of participants.
Minnosota study of twins reared apart
Reared apart, results show more correlation than reared together
Identical show similar personality trait, for example introversion and extroversion.
Higher mono raised apart in different country, different religious attitude
Religious choice environmentally driven Ivy Quach
Genetic influencing religious choice (Not many stat on this )
Marry spouse similar names, EX. July and Judy, similar jobs
Gottsman’s Model: Limit Setting
Genes in the environemtn produce traits which range in where the genes fall. Genes
set the ranges inwhich the trait may fall but the environment determines the exact
set of value.
Quantitative and Qualitative
Height and Stepwise Function Development
Thus environment sets the values of height
The limit setting model is very inadequate
Scarr’s Niche Picking Model
Niche picking model discusses the you have children behaving in certain manner
that is influenced by the genes however if the child has found an environment in
which it is comfortable it will stick it. Such that the niche is something that it thrives
in and likes.
For example: You have a child that acts in a shy manner from the genotype that for