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John Vervaeke

Ivy Quach PSY210H1S th Lecture 7 – Mar. 5 2012 Can’t test real experiment gene-test -can mainipulate genetic structure -rely on quasi experimentation (test?); correlational studies? Ex. Can’t manipulate height , it is plausible to say height effect social statuus but...... A LOT OF QUASI EXPERIMENTAL EXPERIMENT: We’ve had separate share of environment and genetics, families share the same environment. And family studies are best preliminary. Culture run off on familiar relationship Evidence – family study not clearly distinguished. Genetic & environmental influences Adoption Studies (QUASI EXPERIMENTAL METHODS) Compare adopted children to biological parents & adoptive parents. The genes are pulled apart and separated from the environment; this is done with respect to intelligence. Genetic contribution to intelligence. Experiment: Longitudinal Studies conducted on 250 families... Results: Bio logical relation show more significant and strong correlation than individual long term env. This introduced a wrinkle in such a clean picture. Hostile & Antisocial behaviour: Children measured for higher hostility and anti-socialness show more correlation to biological parent w/ pyschatric disorder; GENETIC CONTRIBUTION. Child not living with biological parent would be evidence for genetics Wrinkle: Adoptive parent looks at disciplinary style. They found significant correlation between biological parent & adoptive parent. Genes  Trait Ivy Quach PSY210H1S (Not complete ) Genes  Proto-trait = environment ( Adoptive parent) The idea here is that genes, genes make/create cranky behaviour, which affects the parent (environment) causing them to reinforce the biological component. This creates the reason for correlation between the biological parent and adoptive parent. This creates a feedback loop. Bio causes behaviour which influences the environment, the environment drives the bio. ( The parents become causally linked in a self- organizing system. Potential confound between biological parent and adoptive. Twin Studies There are two types of twins (identical/Monozygotic VS fraternal/ Dizygotic) *The only difference between the two are their genes Monozygotic - a single egg that splits into two Dizygotic- 2 individual eggs fertilized Twin Studies: • Provide more correlation between genetics in intelligence; o Such as: attention, testing, and interaction. o Concentrate more on intelligence. o Can compare developmental pacing Not just product similar but also.......... processs  similarity Between Mono vs Di, Mono show more concordance Wrinkly: In step wise function Structural & Regulatory Genes Structural Genes: (DNA, RNA, Ribosomes), they codes for how to make you Regulatory Genes: (Enzymes, Proteins) they catalyze for metabolism to occur and turn on & off genes Most genes are polygenetic in nature (not coded by one gene). They have the same gene that is influenced in many ways of how they are expressed. Ivy Quach PSY210H1S Similar to a piano keys, they play many notes (with on structure) but different notes forms a song. Biology rewires itself, depending on the different stimuli such as when in desert. Body’s chemistry is altered. Gene  Gene Activity proto-trait environment ( depends on how inter) Gene activity: regulation of polygenetic genetic structure in a contrextually similar Epidgenetics; epigenesist You can have influence on development. Behaviour invokes people in environment, by shaping or moving environment. Principle of Interactionism Nature-Nuture drive environment What does it mean by interaction? It shows a mechanism of interaction. It implies as evidence increase, clarity of definition in interaction and evidence increase How could twin studies be flawed? • Huge environmental confound • Parents treat them as same individual Ex. Parents dress them the same Ex Share syllable parent, Roger and Ronald, same room, encourage to be similar Tradition: treating twin as practically the same individual. There is more concordance, because you treat them the same Combined Twin + Adoption Studies This becomes more expensive with fewer numbers of participants. Minnosota study of twins reared apart Reared apart, results show more correlation than reared together Identical show similar personality trait, for example introversion and extroversion. Higher mono raised apart in different country, different religious attitude Religious choice  environmentally driven Ivy Quach PSY210H1S Genetic  influencing religious choice (Not many stat on this ) Marry spouse similar names, EX. July and Judy, similar jobs Gottsman’s Model: Limit Setting Genes in the environemtn produce traits which range in where the genes fall. Genes set the ranges inwhich the trait may fall but the environment determines the exact set of value. Quantitative and Qualitative Height and Stepwise Function Development Thus environment sets the values of height The limit setting model is very inadequate Scarr’s Niche Picking Model Niche picking model discusses the you have children behaving in certain manner that is influenced by the genes however if the child has found an environment in which it is comfortable it will stick it. Such that the niche is something that it thrives in and likes. For example: You have a child that acts in a shy manner from the genotype that for introve
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