Lecture 9-Mar 19 2012
2. Pre-operational Stage (2-7 years old)
Evidence for Symbolic Function
1. Internal Problem Solving (Blade of grass?)
2. Invisible Displacement
3. Deferred Imitation (Imitating someone that isn’t present and is displaced
in time and space)
a. Ex. Imitate and individual, Superman (he’s not there but child is
able to do so)
“Play” is important for a child in terms of development of symbolic function
Give massive increase in cognitive power and increasing competence to
understand complex processese. This is an indication of qualitative change in an
individual, as they are able to communicate guesture and languages to make ideas
socially shareable. The allows for networking of the brain, which increases problem
solving power and access distributed cognition).
As individuals we are pathetic, without working in groups and social groups we a
As the Vygotskian approach suggest that linking to other minds that are powerful to
Mental representation such as playing has high social aspect, in terms of
interacting. Coordinating teamwork and socializing. We validate our thoughts
through others (socio-cultural context) and while maintaining our identity when
appearance change (object permanence).
Conducted an experiment where he put a dog mask on a cat and ask children what
the animal eats/
The 2-3 year old would give it dog food. The 6-7 year old had qualitative identity
( end of pre-operational stage), and the appearance of reality didn’t influence the
children. The children had become less egocentric.
Egocentric – doesn’t mean selfish, it is the inability to take the perspective of other,
and they think their thoughts are salient to others. They don’t account that adults/ Ivy Quach
people they’re talking to doesn’t know what they’re talking about. Kids assume that
adults know what they are talking about, because they see it as clear to them.
Selfish- Has the competence/ability to take perspectives of others and knows but
Centration: paying attention to one variable, captured by a salient feature. It is the
tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others. Young children
focus attention on only one salient aspect of an object, situation, problem at a time
to the exclusion to other potentially relevant aspects.
Children’s limitation at this stage isfailure of conservation task .
Quantitative appearance: Paying attention to a single dimension. Such as volume,
number and mass.
In an experiement conducted children were present with different height glasses
with the same volume, when the water was pour into the taller glass children chose
the taller glass as having more water. They demonstrate the failure of continuous
Salience vs. Reality
Gestalt Theory ( central coherence), can see big picture, victims of illusion.
Continuity between adults and pre-operation of children.
Overshadowing – tell/ describe verbal features.
Ex. Telling people to identify criminals and convicts.
Using methods such as Verbal description and face recognition. Giving a verbal
description is more difficult to describe as opposed to face recognition. Because
you’re being as to describe such features and focus on describing those single
features, you get “stuck”, stuck in centration and focusing on one feature that is
salient and neglecting other features. To undo this people listen to music to stop
overshadowing, before proceeding to face recognition.
What is the significance here?
We can be easily pushed into centration. In everday situation we become related to
a pre-operational condition. Which mean we aren’t necessarily direction of age and
not moving back. We as adults and children are not so much different, and it is
possible that we are pre-operational stage despite being older and more mature.
3. Concrete Operational Stage (6 -11 years old) Ivy Quach
Getting conservation of understood and “down”, such as number, width, length,
volume, and mass. Having the ability in Classification of Categorization.
Ex. Cat animal mammal. Fitting cats in more than one cateogy, in a
Taxonomic Identity exists as hierarchy.
Sam Cocker Spaniel Dog Mammal Living thing
Deduction of Necessity ??????
Pre-operational vs Concrete Operational
Ex. 20 wooden blocks, different shape