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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY210H1
Professor
C
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture #33 Review Ÿ 50 multiple choice questions, 25 lecture, 25 textbook, since last review class=non-cumulative J Ÿ About one question per lecture Personality Ÿ Three fundamental forces Ÿ History of traits, founder of it, GordonAllport, the idea that there is a science of traits by looking at the natural language Ÿ Raymond Catell used factor analysis to bring the large number of words that describe humans into a small number or underlying traits Ÿ Controversy of traits, if there is cross-situational consistency Ÿ Walter Michel who said there really is very little impressive evidence of cross-situational consistency, and the responses to the critique, those trait psychologists said it could be measured by averaging behaviours across a period of time Ÿ Michel’s reply to the aggregation, new idea of person by situation interactionism, and the model which looks at very unique patterns and profiles of behaviour Ÿ Modern traits psychology, the big five, most personality variations can be summarized by five dimensions, neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness Ÿ Consequences and correlates of these traits, the relationship between neuroticism and negative affect, extroversion and social dominance, conscientiousness and educational and occupational success, openness and hypnotic ability, etc. (remember the correlates) Ÿ Trait psychology from three primary perspectives Ÿ Psychoanalytic approach, very dark view of people, conflicted and anxious and often hiding the truth from ourselves, Freud and his key ideas, and his student Carl Jung, the archetypes, we are constantly trying to reconcile the components inside us Ÿ Behaviourism, the classical behaviourists, Watson and skinner and their focus on overt, observable, behaviour, if you cant see it, its not worth studying, Bandura, Michel focus on covert behaviour, the thoughts and feelings inside us, unseen parts to us Ÿ Bandura and self efficacy, Rotter and expectancy, Michel and integrated framework (remember the analysts and what they were known for) Ÿ Humanism, optimistic view, Rogers and his emphasis on human need for positive regard, human inclination on what conditions of worth we need to satisfy and Rogers view of how people change by giving them unconditional positive regard, and Maslow and his hierarchy of needs, lower order must be met before higher order needs become salient, we need to self-actualize (the top of hierarchy) Ÿ 9 lectures to this topic, 10 lecture questions Ÿ e.g. which trait has consistently been found to be most predictive of social status to face-to face such as fraternities and sororities? Emotional stability, conscientiousness, extraversion or openness Social psychology Ÿ Study of the situation, of how human behaviour changes due to the presence of other people Ÿ Attitudes and prejudice, conformity and influence Ÿ Attitudes are fundamentally an evaluation of something in the world, person, place or thing, only under very strict conditions do our attitudes influence/predict our behaviour (know what the four conditions are) Ÿ Our behaviour can sometimes determine our attitudes, sometimes we can be induced to behave a certain a way, and given that behaviour we must adjust our attitude, seen in Festinger’s study of compliance, if people can be induced to behave in a way inconsistent with their attitude, they will change their attitude to be consistent with our behaviour Ÿ Prejudice, a negative evaluation based on arbitrary characteristics, how it experiences from point of view of the target, stereotype threat, they are representing their group, and they fulfill that due to social pressures, e.g. women and their ability in math depending on their minority or majority settings Ÿ Conformity and influence, human behaviour is very flexible, people can be made to agree with a group of people who are clearly wrong, even if they know it is not correct, Milgrim experiments, studies of pain, how readily people will harm others simply because an authority has instructed to do so Ÿ 4 lecture questions Ÿ e.g. The most robust finding from the Milgrim studies is that participants: -rarely disobey the experimenter
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