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Lecture 11

lecture 11 - Information Processing, con't

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University of Toronto St. George

Problems with computer model o Brain is plastic, computer is not o At the software level, computational model is inadequate Relies highly on propositional knowledge Propositions are statements about facts 2+2=4, Australia is a continent Mind primarily as a machine for making beliefs But, most of our cognition is not about acquisition of beliefs, but acquisition of skills knowing HOW to do things procedural kind of knowing Computers suck at this stuff all their knowledge is propositional Computers cant track patterns and follow them with actions imagine playing a sports game youre trying to figure out patterns, anticipate whats going to happen, follow through with an action computer cant do this! Complex pattern tracking (core of procedural knowledge and not captured well with propositions or inferences) a lot of our cognition is not like a computer program o Computer metaphor tends to think of our cognition as very sequential, but as we learn from Piaget, a lot of cognition occurs in a self-organizing manner computer model has difficulties explains dynamical, self-organizing cognitive processes o Logic and inference are largely about trying to deal with truth this is ONE important aspect of cognition Computers are good at this kind of thinking - reliable about not dropping truth if you put truth into them BUT, you are not organized just to find true information the true information out there is infinite what we care about is RELEVANCE we only care about RELEVANT truth. How you assimilate and accommodate = attention to relevant truths Logic is not designed for handling relevance, relevance is not a property of a proposition logic doesnt capture relevance Computational metaphor has had a perennial problem with trying to account for relevance o Two huge features of cognition procedural knowing and relevance are not captured by computational metaphor ability to know how to do things, and how to selectively attend to information these are two of the things that make us most intelligent Alternative model to logic machine proposed in 2009 o Newer model is logos multimachine o Logistics how brain allocates cognitive resources o Information is organized not in a logical sequential fashioned, but in a self-organized, dynamical fashion o Primary example of this is the relationship between assimilation and accommodation trying to get most efficient yet realistic use of your cognitive schemes o Brain isnt a single machine moving sequentially through states it is a machine of machines that can make itself into a new kind of machine! o Constantly integrating and differentiating in order to complexify itself, making itself into a new machine that has new competencies o Hardware affords qualitative change in the software - Running hardware improves software, running software improves hardware o Cognition/brain, brain is constantly pushing toward qualitative development o Computational model was NOT a developmental model of cognition o Logos multi-machine (LMM) is a development-driven model o Developmental psychology is not some poor cousin of cognitive psychology o LMM model says cognition is inherently developmental o A lot of information processing models are becoming out of date o More and more, neuroscience is looking at things the LMM way you are much more a factor in your development than the computational model indicates o Maybe youre nothing but a self-organizing system running on a self-organizing brain? o This model emphasizes individual differences Information Processing vs. Piagetian model Process model (how/when, analyze, formalize, mechanize) over a product model (Piaget; what, describe products of development) concerned with studying five aspects of change, tracking change, following the flow of information: 1. path/sequence/process of change, 2. rate of change, 3. breadth of change (when one process changes, how much of that is shared with the rest of cognition), 4.variability in change (how much difference is there between children in their pattern of change), 5. sources of change (what are the mechanisms/rules/procedures that are resulting in the change Differences: Piaget is product driven (what), Information process is process driven (how) Emphasis on analysis, formalization, and mechanization in computational model Information processing is much more specific and much more complete in investigation of phenomenon However, there are three important similarities that make them both branches of the cognitive-developmental approach Both are individualistic in nature no talk of cultures, communities, distributed cognition - Both more concerned with mind-world relations than mind-mind relations Heavy emphasis on cognitive development, especially problem solving abilities Both Piaget and information processing model are very influenced by natural science trying to make cognition studies as much like other sciences as possible (Piaget -> biology, Information Processing -> co
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