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Psychological forces: internal traits we have. Things
that make you the unique person you are. No one else
has your environmental upbringing as you.
Sociocultural forces: person’s culture. Different
developmental cultures in an eastern versus western
person. These include supportiveness of community,
Lifecycle forces: indicates that the same experiences
occurring at different times mean different things.
Example: 16 year old versus 30 year old getting
Whether our development is inborn (biological in
nature-we are born with it) or do we have to work for
it (learning-environment influencing us).
Tony represents the nurture aspect, anyone can be him.
Child has no beliefs, values, morals, etc.
When the child becomes an adult with beliefs, values,
it’s because society has made them into that. They
shape people into whatever fits them. Example:
becoming a doctor, saint or murder because we have
done that to them.
They think the same way but children have less
knowledge about the world.
Children are little scientists.
We can’t treat children differently from each other
because they are essentially the same.
You are born with traits as a child but the
environment helps you show it.
ROUSSEAU: Children are not scientists they are artists. They
find their own traits.
Children were noble savages trying to make their own
ways of the world.
We should give them opportunities not force them to
behave/become in one way.
Evolution is insufficient in explaining human
For this reason we have to reject nativism and
imperialism (both nature and nurture).
Society is repressing our urges (Freud said sexual
We have internal mental structures.
Governs our desires. It causes us to get hungry, have
sex, get angry, etc. It has a psychic energy called
libido and something has to be done to alleviate it.
Example: hunger gets built up and something has to be
Everything we do involves