Apgar score taken immediately (15-20 minutes) after
Score out of 10
7-10 good health
4-6 special attention of care
<3 immediate medical attention
Babinski: run your finger along sole of foot, toe
should fan out. This should disappear around 8-12
Moro: baby puts arm out and in as embracing for loud
noises, fearful stimulus or head not being supported
(dropped back). Lasts 6 months.
Palmar: baby grasps an object placed in hand. Lasts 3-
Rooting: stimulus or finger is rubbed on infant’s
cheeks and goes towards stimulus. For feeding purposes
(finding nipple for breast feeding). Lasts 3-4 weeks.
Stepping: when an infant is held up and moved along
the floor, they have rhythmic stepping motion. Lasts
Sucking: objects placed in the infant’s mouth are
sucked on. Feeding or encouraging baby to breast-feed.
Lasts 4 months.
Tonic neck: when the infant lies on the back and if
you tilt face their arm will lift up and the other
will be straight. Helps to coordinate using one body
at a time. Lasts 4-5 months. Remnant in life.
Alert inactivity: calm state, eyes open, taking in
Walking activity: eyes open but unfocused,
Crying: babies spend 2-3 hours crying everyday.
Different cries with the basic one if it’s hungry or
tired. It becomes more intense over time. Mad cry is
intense, pain cry sounds different (gasping and
Sleeping: biggest part of an infant’s day (16-18 hours
sleeping), but it’s not over a span of evening (in the night). They sleep in 3-4 hour shifts. They wake up
and cry, etc. By 3-4 months they are sleeping 5-6
hours a night. By 6 months, 10-12 hours of sleep.
By 1 month infants should hold chin up.
By 2 months infants should lift head up.
By 4 months infants should be able to sit with
support. Parents hold the back or put pillows for
By 7 months infants should be able to sit on their
By 10 months infants should start to crawl.
By 11 months infants should walk with support.
By 15 months infants should walk without assistance.
These are averages ages for these milestones.
They have hard time to grasp objects. Lack perception
of this is what I’m reaching for.
By 5-6 months they coordinate right and left and use
At 6 months, infants experiment feeding themselves
which, can be very messy.
By 7-8 months, infants use their thumbs.
Around 1 year children use cutlery.
At 2-3 years, children can use zippers.
3-4 year olds can use buttons.
Not until 5-6 children can tie their shoes.
It is partly heredity.
Left-handed is associated with clumsiness, bad, etc.
Genes explain 75% of it.
Some say it has to do with brain lateralization.
Argued that something during prenatal or postnatal
happens in left (to do with language) and their right
hemisphere compensates making it the dominant. (???NOT
Others have said maybe its linked to maleness (more
men than females are left-handed) so has to do with
elevated testosterone levels.
Those 3 potential hypotheses.
Slide 12 We’re taking the variables as in and are trying to
When we are naturally low on a type of food, we want
Most Asians, Natives and African Americas are lactose
intolerance because dairy was not part of food source
so they didn’t built up tolerance to digest it.
Before 2-3 years old, children eat everything.