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Lecture 2

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Ian Spence

Lecture 2 Slide 2  Apgar score taken immediately (15-20 minutes) after birth. Slide 3  Score out of 10  7-10  good health  4-6  special attention of care  <3  immediate medical attention Slide 5  Babinski: run your finger along sole of foot, toe should fan out. This should disappear around 8-12 months.  Moro: baby puts arm out and in as embracing for loud noises, fearful stimulus or head not being supported (dropped back). Lasts 6 months.  Palmar: baby grasps an object placed in hand. Lasts 3- 4 months.  Rooting: stimulus or finger is rubbed on infant’s cheeks and goes towards stimulus. For feeding purposes (finding nipple for breast feeding). Lasts 3-4 weeks.  Stepping: when an infant is held up and moved along the floor, they have rhythmic stepping motion. Lasts 2-3 months.  Sucking: objects placed in the infant’s mouth are sucked on. Feeding or encouraging baby to breast-feed. Lasts 4 months.  Tonic neck: when the infant lies on the back and if you tilt face their arm will lift up and the other will be straight. Helps to coordinate using one body at a time. Lasts 4-5 months. Remnant in life. Slide 6  Alert inactivity: calm state, eyes open, taking in their surroundings.  Walking activity: eyes open but unfocused, uncoordinated activity.  Crying: babies spend 2-3 hours crying everyday. Different cries with the basic one if it’s hungry or tired. It becomes more intense over time. Mad cry is intense, pain cry sounds different (gasping and catching breathe).  Sleeping: biggest part of an infant’s day (16-18 hours sleeping), but it’s not over a span of evening (in the night). They sleep in 3-4 hour shifts. They wake up and cry, etc. By 3-4 months they are sleeping 5-6 hours a night. By 6 months, 10-12 hours of sleep. Slide 7  By 1 month infants should hold chin up.  By 2 months infants should lift head up.  By 4 months infants should be able to sit with support. Parents hold the back or put pillows for support.  By 7 months infants should be able to sit on their own.  By 10 months infants should start to crawl.  By 11 months infants should walk with support.  By 15 months infants should walk without assistance.  These are averages ages for these milestones. Slide 8  F/F/T/T Slide 9  They have hard time to grasp objects. Lack perception of this is what I’m reaching for.  By 5-6 months they coordinate right and left and use them purposefully.  At 6 months, infants experiment feeding themselves which, can be very messy.  By 7-8 months, infants use their thumbs.  Around 1 year children use cutlery.  At 2-3 years, children can use zippers.  3-4 year olds can use buttons.  Not until 5-6 children can tie their shoes. Slide 10  It is partly heredity.  Left-handed is associated with clumsiness, bad, etc.  Genes explain 75% of it.  Some say it has to do with brain lateralization.  Argued that something during prenatal or postnatal happens in left (to do with language) and their right hemisphere compensates making it the dominant. (???NOT FULLY SURE???)  Others have said maybe its linked to maleness (more men than females are left-handed) so has to do with elevated testosterone levels.  Those 3 potential hypotheses. Slide 12  We’re taking the variables as in and are trying to find trends. Slide 13  F/T/F Slide 14  When we are naturally low on a type of food, we want that food. Slide 15  Most Asians, Natives and African Americas are lactose intolerance because dairy was not part of food source so they didn’t built up tolerance to digest it.  Before 2-3 years old, children eat everything.  Pi
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