AS: parents who exert control over kid’s life tend to
do so in a way that scaffolds them to do so.
Authoritarian: child feels parent is dominating.
Behavioral control: monitor child’s behavior (looking
at behavior, punishing behavior, using it as outcome).
If child isn’t doing homework, authoritarian would get
reports from teacher to see if child did homework
Psychological control: shaming the child saying you’re
embarrassing us by not doing homework, how do you
think the teacher would think about us?
B & PC have poor outcomes.
Induction: reasoning based methods.
Direct instruction: telling your child what to do and
why they should do their homework (because it’s
important for grades and to follow through)
Modeling: ill show you how to clean up and I want you
to do it.
Reward: give them a treat, hug, or anything to reward
their good behavior.
Negative punishment: spanking or threatening to do so.
Control of resources: taking away toys, no privileges
when you misbehave.
Shame/humiliation: shame on family, child, why would
you do this?
Ignoring: not look at child when he/she doesn't
behave, not pay attention.
Isolating: isolate the child, take the child out of
situation and leaving them alone, parents can isolate
themselves. Time-out is an effective strategy parent’s
Want to pass on morals to children so they endorse
those moral values as their own.
Which toy would they play with when left alone?
They learned over these successive trials, that
reaching for desirable toy got them punished (negative
experience) so learned to associate choosing desirable
toy leads to undesirable traits so negative affect
controls what they pick. Slide 8
Timing: delay decouples the act with the anxiety. We
say the reason these children avoid playing with
desirable toy is negative affect. You have to punish
Intensity: has to cause negative affect (anxiety) but
not so intense that the message is lost. If the
experimenter screamed at the child and threw the toy,
the child wouldn't know why he’s being punished.
Consistency: every time you reach for toy, you get
punished. Hard to extinguish those with partial
interval such as getting punished only sometimes when
eating a cookie before dinner. Needs to happen every
Nature of relationship: between child and adult.
Children are more likely to internalize from an adult
who is warm so they can please this person to get warm
How important is their cognition?
Punishment was not immediate it was after 6 seconds
and then given explanation.
This is important because it gives them a cognitive
structure to organize their experience.
They can associate negative affect and anxiety with
They see that the rationale controls their behavior
rather that punishment and anxiety controlling them.
We judge people who are trying to do something bad and
fail to do it than someone good who accidentally did
Internalization graph: immediate 10; intentions 9;
rationale 6; 6 second delay 4.
They gave back tokens.
When they do transgress, we want them to feel guilty
so they don’t do it again.
When they value it there more likely to internalize
Becomes verbal with age (saying you are a bad boy, I
am a bad girl). But it can be seen pre-verbally
(looking ashamed, isolate or shun themselves). Punishment is reinforcing: you do something bad, you
anticipate being punished and negative affect but when
it comes and you are punished, there is some relieve
that you are over with it. Then you can move on and
get back to normal state.
When they did it wrong, they were punished to varying
degrees were told no and their tootsie rolls were
1) The buzzer would sound when they got it wrong, the
experimenter would say no, after they were punished
because they did it the blue way.
2) Immediately after buzzer they were told no you did
it the blue way, tootsie roll was taken away.
3) Wanted to see how important encouraging was and
blue was said immediate after.
4) Were just told you did it the blue way.
Said blue way as a new language.
What did the child do when they got it wrong and
experimenter didn't say it. Would they use this new
language “blue way”.
Blue was highest with those who were told they did it