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Lecture 7

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University of Toronto St. George
Ian Spence

Lecture 7 Slide 4  AS: parents who exert control over kid’s life tend to do so in a way that scaffolds them to do so.  Authoritarian: child feels parent is dominating.  Behavioral control: monitor child’s behavior (looking at behavior, punishing behavior, using it as outcome). If child isn’t doing homework, authoritarian would get reports from teacher to see if child did homework everyday.  Psychological control: shaming the child saying you’re embarrassing us by not doing homework, how do you think the teacher would think about us?  B & PC have poor outcomes. Slide 5  Induction: reasoning based methods.  Direct instruction: telling your child what to do and why they should do their homework (because it’s important for grades and to follow through)  Modeling: ill show you how to clean up and I want you to do it.  Reward: give them a treat, hug, or anything to reward their good behavior.  Negative punishment: spanking or threatening to do so.  Control of resources: taking away toys, no privileges when you misbehave.  Shame/humiliation: shame on family, child, why would you do this?  Ignoring: not look at child when he/she doesn't behave, not pay attention.  Isolating: isolate the child, take the child out of situation and leaving them alone, parents can isolate themselves. Time-out is an effective strategy parent’s use. Slide 6  Want to pass on morals to children so they endorse those moral values as their own.  Which toy would they play with when left alone? Slide 7  They learned over these successive trials, that reaching for desirable toy got them punished (negative experience) so learned to associate choosing desirable toy leads to undesirable traits so negative affect controls what they pick. Slide 8  Timing: delay decouples the act with the anxiety. We say the reason these children avoid playing with desirable toy is negative affect. You have to punish right away.  Intensity: has to cause negative affect (anxiety) but not so intense that the message is lost. If the experimenter screamed at the child and threw the toy, the child wouldn't know why he’s being punished.  Consistency: every time you reach for toy, you get punished. Hard to extinguish those with partial interval such as getting punished only sometimes when eating a cookie before dinner. Needs to happen every time.  Nature of relationship: between child and adult. Children are more likely to internalize from an adult who is warm so they can please this person to get warm relationship. Slide 9  How important is their cognition?  Punishment was not immediate it was after 6 seconds and then given explanation.  This is important because it gives them a cognitive structure to organize their experience.  They can associate negative affect and anxiety with the experience.  They see that the rationale controls their behavior rather that punishment and anxiety controlling them. Slide 10  We judge people who are trying to do something bad and fail to do it than someone good who accidentally did something bad.  Internalization graph: immediate 10; intentions 9; rationale 6; 6 second delay 4. Slide 12  They gave back tokens.  When they do transgress, we want them to feel guilty so they don’t do it again.  When they value it there more likely to internalize it. Slide 13  Becomes verbal with age (saying you are a bad boy, I am a bad girl). But it can be seen pre-verbally (looking ashamed, isolate or shun themselves).  Punishment is reinforcing: you do something bad, you anticipate being punished and negative affect but when it comes and you are punished, there is some relieve that you are over with it. Then you can move on and get back to normal state. Slide 14  When they did it wrong, they were punished to varying degrees were told no and their tootsie rolls were taken away. Slide 15  1) The buzzer would sound when they got it wrong, the experimenter would say no, after they were punished because they did it the blue way.  2) Immediately after buzzer they were told no you did it the blue way, tootsie roll was taken away.  3) Wanted to see how important encouraging was and blue was said immediate after.  4) Were just told you did it the blue way.  Said blue way as a new language. Slide 16  What did the child do when they got it wrong and experimenter didn't say it. Would they use this new language “blue way”. Slide 17  Blue was highest with those who were told they did it the blue
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