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Lecture

PSY210H1F Lecture 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY210H1
Professor
Justin Mc Neil
Semester
Fall

Description
PSY210H1F L2, Sept 18, 2012 At this time: children paid cheaply for work, seen as lesser & Tests: 50 multiple choice Qs from textbook, 5 short answer Qs fronot as useful as adults lecture o Safety meant less Theories of Development o Locke said it is only experience that separates them, The real question is not whether machines think but whether that they deserve equal rights as adults men do. Children = little scientists o B. F. Skinner Aristotle: Laws of Association Core Values Associationism: how we organize info Nature vs. Nurture Supplement to Lockes theory o Is development primarily due to biological or envtal Contiguity factors? o Things that occur close to each other are linked o Rich mosaic or combination? o Temporal, spatial often both Continuous vs. Discontinuous o Closely together but also conceptually linked to one o Are children and adults fundamentally different? another in function Universal vs. Context-Sensitive Ex. Coffee + mug intended to be used in o Do people from different cultures & contexts develop conjunction very often similarly or differently? Learn as we use things more o All difs in humans do to 1% of our genes Frequency similar to contiguity o Are all ppl fundamentally the same deep down inside? o Things that occur together often are linked o Or would a change in gender, parenting, culture, etc., o Linked temporally but not conceptually change who you are? Ex. Watching tv while drinking coffee used together often, personal experience has linked these Nature or Nurture? Similarity o Thinking of one thing makes one think of the other because they are similar Ex. When think about dog, think about cat 4 legs, furry, allergies Contrast o Thinking of one thing makes you think of another because they are different Ex. Contrast of size may think of something large Thor: No matter what path he chooses, he still has special when you think of something small and vice versa abilities Empiricism: Conditions o Simply dif from everyone else Nature Locke = one of founders of Liberalism: if moral worth of Anthony Stark: built his armour, hard-work, determination human being cannot be measured, then assume all human Nature beings are of equal moral worth & treat all humans o Development based on internal, stable factors equally Factors were born with (perhaps intelligence) o Based on biology, pre-destined inherent talents, etc. Very Humanistic Human rights, humanism: good & evil have social causes Born to do well o If a child turns out badly due to envt in development o Envt, experiences play little or no role No experiences matter to a significant degree Specific mechanism for development: o Importance of learning (radical factors) o More experience more development Nurture o Development based on external factors o One of most important theories in psych learning, development Radical factors How to parent, teach children o Social interactions, culture, etc. o At time, corporal punishment often used in schools So development based on simple learning o Internal attributes play little role are shaped by Locke said could also convince children not to go to school envt Must look at what childs experience tells them Nurture: Empricism Are people Tabula Rasa? John Locke Are dog & grizzly bear similar or different? o Tabula Rasa: blank slate o Children born w no inherent knowledge, born a blank How does a banana compare? slates o Most different Teddy bear? o Thru our sensory intake we learn what it is to exist construct experiences, observe reality learning o Banana still most dif development By biological size: grizzly most dif By colour: banana Raw search for knowledge development Development quantitative By biology: banana As we view the world & experience is, reality remains One of first to take mmphasis on active, child-centered apparent to us, simply know a bear is a bear & a dog is a dog learning etc. o Shouldnt tell ppl how to thinkm let discover for self is o But how if we dont know what big or small does? natural state of afffairs o They dont have objective properties to them Understanding of inherent abilities, talents, limitations Looking at subjective properties comparisons o Individual difs in ppl are simply a thing, o Learn thru comparisons Meaning-making o Ex. Compared to skyscraper, bear not big anymore Things can be infinitely similar or infinitely dif dependingNativism Issues? what comparing Where do these inherent capabilities come from Ex. Think of alien w no senses cant describe the objects o Prepare us to live in world o According to Tabul Rasa: All children are this alien o If left alone, would be just fine o Have no way to categorize objects ex. Dont know what o Theology - Rousseau: these come from G-d brown is o Scientifically - Evolution: predisposed to having dif But would stop us from ever developing the ability talents to categorize objects Variation ppl should be dif & ardwired towards dif evolutionarily adaptive abilities more successful Issues w Lockes Theory ppl Menos paradox (soft paradox) However human generations far apart (~20-30yrs) o If you know something, there is no need to search for it. Dont make enough progeny to see effects, need o If you dont know something, you wont recognize it 10,000s of yrs to see effects when you see it. Urban envts: lived in for ~5000yrs unique o The search for knowledge is then either unnecessary or o Seem naturally predisposed to construction of cities impossible regardless of cultures Cant differentiate important experience from unimportant o More recent: advent of technology in last 2 human experience generations How do children naturally pick these skills up? Nature: Nativism
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