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PSY210H1F Lecture 3

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Justin Mc Neil

PSY210H1F L3, Sept 25, 2012 o Can account for alternative explanations has well ex. Essay dont assume reader knows everything that youre talking Faithful men adaptive to help offspring grow into about (unfamiliar w topic) o Adequately address alternatives to refute them adulthood o no human bhvr that cant be explained o One pt should flow into the next pt logically states any trait passed down must be adaptive o Dont use block quotes (MLA) o Use In-Text citations as few as possible But is it science? o Proper citations list at end in APA format o Defined this way is not a scientific theory Scientific Method Research Methods Psychology is caught btwn a rock & a soft place. The rock is Scientific theory can only be generated using scientific rigor. The soft place is relevance. method Define a question -- Urie Bronfenbrenner Psychologists: Conduct expts based on hypotheses Form an explanatory hypothesis describe what is really occurring Test hypothesis by collecting data o Dont simply look at neuron interactions Analyze data, interpret results Apply medical research to everyday life o Cause & Effect consistently o Theory must be falsifiable Consider A friend of yours is trying to justify his recent infidelity. He o Control states that his drive to have sex is a basic biological reality, o Must have a consistent, accepted method of explaining reality and that his Id processes were simply too strong for hi Superego to control, and that therefore his Ego was simple All hypotheses have to be evaluated using certain selecting the most rationl method of satisfying his craving. methods & set of criteria Since the strength of ones Superego... Rational, why scientific method very dominant Was this wrong Did he have control? Use best model at time allows for change Freud unfalsifable since keeps adjusting his theory What is a Scientific Theory? No methods are perfect Freud: development occurs in the unconscious o Infinite amt of variability in humans so cant ever We all have biological drives and cant always be on guard discover everything cant be absolutists like physicists against them st Ego, Id, Superego 1 method: Systematic Observation Life, death instincts Naturalistic observation o Field research: watch children in their natural envt Explains everything o Clear, accurate picture of how a phenomenon occurs But is it science? o Method thru w it explains the world is too simplistic, o Highly generalizable pic of psychological reality of chidren can think will prob be every day some ideas not empirically validated, bedrock not Seeing children at their most honest may not know scientific being watched o But may not always observe the situation/phenomenon you want to observe, so... Structured Observation o Bring kids in to lab, research setting o Produce some situation, watch how children react A bit more controlled (extraneous variables) 2-way mirror o Introduces envtal control, guarantee instance of studied phenomenon o Not as generalizable not real world, may act dif in lab Consider A friend of yours is trying to justify his recent infidelity. Hemitations states that, evolutionarily speaking, it is most adaptive for Difficult to control envt What (systematic cant develop cause & effect as well), men to have sex w as many women as possible in order to ensure that their genes survive until the next generation since not why he was only acting in a biologically rational way, his Observer bias (naturalistic) o Observers not objective indiscretions were not really his fault. Do you agree? Observers often see what they want to see What is a Scientific Theory? o Soln: Double-blind design not told hypothesis Observer influence (structured) Evolutionary Psychology Traits develop as a means of survival o Bhvr changes as it is being observed All traits have an adaptive purpose o More of an issue w older children who understand social rules & codes of conduct Variation, evolutionary niche, mutation Explains everything - problem Younger kids often unwilling & unable to even care cups(interviewer changes course) Have you ever broken that others have expectations, so more honest anything? A cup. How? I wanted to wipe it, and I let it drop. What else have you broken? Another time, a plate. How? I Reliability took it to play with. Which was the naughtiest thing to do? The Inter-rater reliability plate, because I oughtnt to have taken it.(here the child understand intentions) And how about the cup? That was o Will both ppl give same ratings Important in systematic observation, qualitative research less naughty because I wanted to wipe it. Which were you Do two people agree about what they are seeing? punished most for, for the cup or for the plate? For the plate. Listen, I am going to tell you two more stories. A little girl was wiping the cups. She was putting them away, wiping them with the cloth, and she broke five cups. Another little girl is playing with some plates. She breaks a plate. Which of them is the naughtiest? The one who broke the five cups. Child when evaluating own actions is correct, but not others even in same interview (instant reactions) Cognitive limitations to children o No other method can make distinctions in judgement this Tell A Story fine Ex: child telling story o Could say subjective, but not useless Answering checklist o Thin Slice can look at small clip of a specific bhvr Interview Limitations (1-3min), enough to form reasonable assessment of Pre-verbal children? personality Evidence suggests childrens understanding of events lags o Strong agreement in class behind verbal ability o Not told what we were looking for, context of story o Doesnt mean linguistic & cognitive abilities match up o Inter-rater reliability high
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