Class Notes (811,043)
Canada (494,456)
Psychology (3,457)
PSY210H1 (136)

PSY210H1F Lecture 4

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Justin Mc Neil

PSY210H1F L4, Oct 02, 2012 Adaptation: children learn thru interaction w envt If our brains were simple enough for us to understand, wed be oo Used to deal w diseqm simple that we couldnt. Ian Stewart o Assimilation: new experiences distorted to fit Cognitive Development schema eqm Human brain = simple most adaptive biological tool ever Info may be close to fitting schema, so made to fit developed Ex. 1999 thought world ending in 2000, but didnt How do we go from reasonably incompetent baby to young end; so instead chose 2001, then 2012 adult? At our core we do not want to change how we How do we know to use a hammer w nails? view the world if our view is good enough o Need to know about density, how to use the tool (Constructivist approach) o We also know we could use a brick if hammer not Whats important is how we use reality available o Accommodation: schema distorted to fit experiences o Able to rank objects, grp them eqm o Only humans could solve this, & we did it easily, so how? Info far from fitting schema How development, learning occurs Piagets Theory Trying to fill in the mechanisms that John Locke could not How does Piaget explain learning? 1. Structured Whole: development occurs all at once o Human capabilities can generalize to other avenues have general problem solving principles, so dont have to use trial-and-error for everything o Set of inherent stable cognitive abilities As we gain these cog abilities, able to solve everything they relate to Children & adults think differently, are just dif o Ability to solve all problems increases 2. Stages: development occurs in order o Dif stages have dif developmental tasks o Higher stages have higher stages of thinking, understand Must change how we understand the world learning world better, view world more logically, use more effective problem-solving strategies usable for more problems Stages How we categorize, use info o Qualitative changes btwn the changes, ability to solve problems gets more effective Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yrs) 3. Universal: everybody progresses thru the same stages o How do babies develop knowledge? o Babies able to organize info they take in w senses o Zoologist- physiological, neurological background o Adult brain just more sophisticated than infant brain Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs) o Human brains all fundamentally the same, so shouldnt o How do children apply info to reality? see great deal of cultural change o Have knowledge, how view world dif than adults o Ppl cant skip changes, cant go backwards Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yrs) (neurological degradation) o How do children solve problems? o How knowledge applied Basic Principles o What problems can & cant they solve, how do they move Constructivist: children actively create own reality btwn problems o Disagreed w Skinner (says no free will, all envt, passive) Formal Operational Stage (11+ yrs) o Ppls sensory perceptions not similar, is subjective o How do children solve abstract problems? Every indiv interprets envt stimuli in dif way o What problems can & cant they solve, how do they move o Envt irrelevant btwn problems o Children try to learn as much as possible about world, thru: Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yrs) System of equilibrium & disequilibrium (when learn things Cog abilities develop most quickly personal autonomy, toddler we disagree w) o Equilibriation Infants think w their eyes, ears, & hands Scheme: a mental structure that organizes info o Physical interactions o 1 few schema developed thru sensory perceptions o Cognitive representations o Types of info called upon to solve problems Cannot carry out internal activities, thought o Ex. Know what hammer is, how to differentiate hard from Cannot actively explore world; unintentional exploration soft,, how to move arm to use the hammer w nail o Build knowledge by accident o All info is categorized o Not passive recipients of knowledge o Want to represent reality as best as possible, want Circular reaction: Repetition of activity builds schemes these schema to be sufficient to understand to world Complex period of development, building blocks to eplore well enough world Piagets Theory Sensorimotor Substages Substage 1 o Reinforcement? o Newborns: completely reflexive schemes What if frequently reinforced to look under wrong o Incables of doing anything cloth? o No willful activity Can solve problem if encourage to look under the o dont understand that can produce effects in envt other cloth Substage 2 Trouble inhibiting previously rewarded task o Primary circular reactions produce effects Substage 6 Ex. Making toy make a sound Substage 5 Baby moving, doing something it enjoys, by o Tertiary circular actions accident Able to use cause to make novel effects Trying to reason thru how they can get the same Ex. See what other things happen when hit things reaction every time o Can refine bhvrs to provoke novel responses Babies like to repeat enjoyment activities o When faced w difficulties, try ineffectively to solve But dont realize cause-and-effect, do same problems action for any effect o Cant represent objects & predict what will happen So not thought, not intentional Cant mentally manipulate objects Development of rudimentary schema o Trial&error o Limited ability to anticipate Substage 6 Substage 3 o Mental representation of objects o Secondary circular reaction o Can internally work thru problems w/o trial&error Can differentiate interesting bhvrs from o Can predict noninteresting bhvrs Can select bhvrs it wants to try again Research? 1 pattern = 1 scheme Piaget consistently underestimates childrens abilities & how o Can repeat interesting bhvrs early they arrive But can only manipulate external objects Children capable of rudimentary imitation, deferred Cant differentiate what hes doing to produce the imitation, rational imitation thing frm the thing itself no intentional bhvr o Ex. Imitating facial expressions Substage 4 Core knowledge: babies seem to have rudimentary o Intentional bhvr. Actions no longer random understanding of physical world Can break down the schema o Inherent inborn understanding of certain physical Complexifying his schema laws Flailing arm does not equal mobile moving, but can o Stares at things that violate expectations retest
More Less

Related notes for PSY210H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.