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PSY210H1F Lecture 5

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Justin Mc Neil

PSY210H1F L5 Language and Intelligence Think of how stupid the avg person is, & realize half of them are stupider than that. George Carlin Test: 2hrs long, 6-8pm, 50 multiple choice (txtbk), 5/8 short answer Qs (lectures, 5-15 sentences, can be in pt form) o Know major theorists, how to compare them o Know studies mentioned in class know in more detail from txtbk Dont need to know dates o Use time effectively Some ppl are simply able to use info better Are these sentences incorrect? The media were biased in their reporting of the event. Language o Prerogatively incorrect (was, not were) How important is language? By manipulating the lower back, the pain was greatly eased. Tool used to organize info, understand world o Wrong order of particles o Piaget: important, but not special The council advises physiciansat regular intervals to administer the drug The more we interact w world, the more we continue to learn & understand the world o Meaning unclear Social world o Need commas No more or less important than other tools To boldly go where no one has gone before o Vygotsky: most important skill o Split infinitive (to go boldy) The way we enter into a social world Adults obliged to know proper grammar We learn more in a social setting than alone o We understand what is proper inherently, w/o knowing Engage w others in community, culture why Adapt social role, directly earn from other human beings o Everything must be taught to us specifically so we can teach proximal development it to the next genertion All impossible w/o language Errors? Language Components Novel errors Phonology o Underextension o Rules governing structure & seq of sounds Failing to extend proper category to all members of o Single utterances combined to make words that category Ex. Saying Husky = dog but Chihuahua = cat Semantics o Vocab: how concepts are expressed in words o Overextension o Words have meaning Extending proper category to members not of that Grammar category o Syntax: rules by which words are arranged Ex. Saying husky = dog and Armadillo = dog Words placed in meaningful fashion to produce ideas, o I goed to the park yesterday. ed often goes on past verbs, grammatical rule communication o Morphology: grammatical markers Over-regularizing/applying these rules to words they Pragmatics dont apply to o How to interact, communicate effectively Bhvrists: Someone had to teach them this Lang at its core describes the world & its objects Bhvrist Problems Adults dont know all grammar How Does Language Develop? Behaviorism Children make novel errors, that no one would have modelled to o Outgrowth of ideas of BF Skinner them before o Reinforcement, punishment o Rmbr they tried to explain everything Noam Chomsky: Nativism Children assume responsibility for learning Nativism o Children predisposed to learn language thru exposure to it Behaviorism o Teaching plays comparatively little role Language acquired thru learning & imitation o Uniquely human capability Can generate infinite # of symbols, sounds, words to Adults correct childrens errors describe world o Ex. Praising, attempts to label objects Not to this level in animals, they lack the core ability to System of reinforcement & imitation o All lang components taught by parents (P,S,G,P) learn it & use it the way humans do, since lack the Does this make sense? neurological basis Language Acquisition Device (LAD) o innate system that allows children to combine words into grammatically consistent, novel sentences o can learn quickly & effectively Language Acquisition Device Universal grammar: o built-in storehouse of rules that apply to all languages o Chomsky: All langs fundamentally similar to each other Humans evolved to make langssimilar & learn them Sensitive period: o Want to know what avg child should be able to accomplish o childrens brains are specialized to acquire language when constructing the curriculum o evolution deemed ability to learn language is something we o Didnt want to ask teahers since biased must not got w/o Binet & Simon: devised tests that measured cognitive ability, o ability to produce lang tampered forever if dont learn lang reason before sensitive period has passed o Intelligence quotient (IQ) no amt of learning will change this (so bhvrist theory Based on Qs a child of that age would normally get right opposed) Divided mental age by chronological age, then x100 Normed to have standard dev of 15 Support? Most scores btwn 85 & 115 Animal Language o Didnt mean children were stupid, just wanted to know where o Animals can acquire lang, but difficult to plae them for better education o Uniquely human aptitude o Predicted school performance o Chimpanzee may be more advanced than young children, but Successful less ability to produce lang sinc brain no structured to learn 1 systematic approach to development st lang And 1 instrument devised to accurately measure cognitive o Animals must be specifically taught to use lang development While a children, just hearing lang, can learn it w/o beig But is it unidimensional (good at everything equally) or specifically taught multidimensional (do well at dif things) Neurological studies o Find out w Factors o Brain areas associated w lang production & understanding o Brain damage can cause linguistic deficiencies Research Methods: Factor Analysis Lesions to Brocas & Wernickes areas I tend to be talkative Less in children - plasticity I tend to be reserved Sensitive period I tend to be shy, inhibited o Ge
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