PSY210H1F L7, Oct 30, 2012 Some bird, dogs, elephants, dolphins can pass
Essay: Should use essays cited in the textbook Even cross-culturally cultures w/o mirrors
Difficult to take a person apart & look at pieces Social interactions allow us to develop a sense of self
Taking someone as a whole separate from reality
Approach the world as a whole, not as parts o Facilitate idea that we are separate from world
The Development of the Self
What Predicts Development of the Self?
'Who are you?' said the Caterpillar.
This was not an encouraging opening for a conversation. Alice Social development
replied, rather shyly, 'I I hardly know, sir, just at present o Public/private self not looked down on
at least I know who I was when I got up this morning, but I Resent socially acceptable face to world
think I must have been changed several times since then. understand social acceptance
-- Alices Adventures in Wonderland o 2 ary emotions can only be developed in a social envt
Cooley: The Looking Glass Self
The Self o Have an idea of how we look to other can gage
A combo of physical & psychological attributes that make reactions
an indiv o How others feel about us
o How we change ourselves to satisfy others modify
Aware on some level the kind of person you are, as an indiv
messed within a social whole self to project a dif image
o W/o social interactions, would be no need to monitor
Driven by 2 ary emotions
Know others have expectations
When Do We Know Who We Are?
Freud: Infant egocentrism
o Primary (motivation from biological urges from id, no
ego yet so imagine being satiated to satisfy psychic
energy for a while) & secondary (rational component to
satisfy needs w ego, regardless of how good the caregiver
is) process thinking
o Infants dont distinguish btwn self & outside world, Theory of Mind
fantasy & reality When do we learn that others have dif knowledge?
o Children understand social schema from young age (Still
Baby = utterly egocentric
o Caregiver inefficiency: childrens development of the self Face change bhvr when situation not going to plan)
Need some inefficiency for the ego to develop o Children understand how to communicate w others
Ex. 4 yr old simplifying speech to talk to 2 yr olds
Research? Disagrees o Do children understand motives of others?
o Infants understand they are distinctive from
Ex. Core-knowledge hypothesis stare at the
impossible for longer; have expectations about how
reality works (external to themself)
o 3-4 months: can recognize own faces, cries
Red-dot task: child marked w odourless red mark
on their head (but are unaware) put in front of
mirror, sees child w red dot if rub own head,
realize the other chid is a reflection
have beginnings of leaving egocentrism Need to develop a theory of mind others are just as
complex as we are; subject to same emotions, biases;
Amazing Apes others act on a dif set of knowledge
3 yr old chimpanzee never seen mirror before erect fear,
sign of anger curiosity can tell they are looking at theiresire Theory of Mind
own tongue & teeth bodily image Young children: people act according to their desires
Use Mark Test Cognitive limitations
o By age 2, of all children recognize themselves, rest o Children have difficulty understanding stable
follow soon after internal abstract traits
o Chimps: seen reflection before, hand goes to the mark Think ppl do things because they want to (ex. Attachment: warm, supportive parenting develop empathy
Succeed or fail because they wanted to) in quicker more complex fashion
vastly overestimate intentionality Make-believe play: taking on roles of others
Dont realize internal unconscious motives Social interaction: quality of interaction
o Lack ability to think in abstract terms
Who Are You?
Belief-Desire Theory of Mind Traits motivated our bhvr
Older children: Beliefs can also motivate bhvrs I am ________________ - categorize self (female, Canadian)
o More complex understanding of motivation
I am ________________ - intelligent, strong, brave, etc.
o Ppl act based on their knowledge of a situation what
they know to be true & want to be true Self-Concept
But do children understand the mental states of others?
Who are you?
o May understand they act both on desires & beliefs, but at Attributes, abilities, attitude & values you believe you have
what age do they generalize this? Or are they as Can describe & label self, predict what well do in dif situations
egocentric as Piaget thought?
Can predict what others will do in certain situations
motivated by traits or attributes
False Belief Task
Self-Descriptions: Early Childhood
My name is Bruce C. I have brown hair. I love sports! I have seven
people in my family. I have great eye sight! I have lots of friends! I
live at (address). I have an uncle who is almost 7 feet tall. My teacher
is Mrs. V. I play hockey! Im almost the smartest boy in the class. I
love food! I love school!
o Focus on concrete attributes, physical characteristics
Didnt say whether likes family
o Extremely unfocused narrative not particular order
I play sports & I like hockey not grped since
dont have Athletic trait that allows for grping
o Extremely high self-esteem, view of self
Self-Concept: Middle Childhood / Early Adolescence
11 yr old: My name is A. Im a human being... a girl... a truthful